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English ophthalmologist; born at Königsberg, East Prussia, June 30, 1830; brother of Oskar Liebreich. He received his education at the universities of Königsberg, Berlin, and Halle (M.D. 1853). After a postgraduate course at Utrecht under Donders, and at Berlin under Brücke, he became assistant in the ophthalmological institute of Berlin University from 1854 to 1862. In the latter year he established himself as an ophthalmologist in Paris, whence he removed to London in 1870. There he became lecturer and clinicist in ophthalmology at St. Thomas' Hospital.

Since about 1895 he has given up his hospital duties and reduced his private practise, spending most of his time in researches in art, especially the technique of the old masters.

Liebreich has constructed two ophthalmoscopes, which are universally used—a larger one, more elaborate and heavy, and a portable one. The latter especially supplied a long-felt want. Following Helmholtz's invention, Liebreich added two convex lenses to the small concave reflex mirror.

Of Liebreich's writings may be mentioned: "Atlas der Ophthalmoskopie," Berlin, 1863 (3d ed. 1885); "Ophthalmoskopische Notizen," in Albrecht von Graefe's "Archiv für Ophthalmologie," i., iv., v., vii.; "Ein Fall von Scheinbarer Myopie, Bedingt Durch Accommodationskrampf," ib. viii.; "Modification des Schieloperation," ib. xii.; (with Laqueur) "Recueil des Travaux de la Société Médicale Allemande de Paris," Paris, 1865; "Eine Neue Methode der Cataractextraction," Berlin, 1872; "On the Use and Abuse of Atropin," London, 1873; "Clinical Lecture on Convergent Squint," ib. 1874; "School Life in Its Influence on Sight and Figure," ib. 1877 (2d ed. 1878).

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J. F. T. H.
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