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The unedited full-text of the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia
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ARCHER, ARCHERY – The bow as a weapon in war and the chase was familiar to the Hebrews from patriarchal times (Gen. xxi. 20, xxvii. 3, xlviii. 22). Jonathan and Jehu were expert archers (II Sam. i. 22; II Kings ix. 24); the tribe of Benjamin was...
ATHLETES, ATHLETICS, AND FIELD-SPORTS – Men who perform feats of strength, or practise games and sports the pursuit of which depends on physical strength; the feats, games, and sports themselves.—Biblical Data: Notable "Mighty" Men. Long before the Greeks made...
BELOVAR – Town in Croatia, Austria. The Jewish community of Belovar was founded about 1877, when some fifty Jewish families settled there.While in Belovar, Moritz Grünwald published there the "Jüdisch-Literarisches Centralblatt." The...
BIBLE EXEGESIS – Jewish: 1. Israel has been called "the People of the Book"; it may as fitly be called "the people of Scripture exegesis," for exegesis in the largest sense of the word is in a way the one indigenous science which Israel has...
BORROWER – One who receives, at his own request, the property of another, for free use, upon the agreement that it shall be returned to the owner (Ḳid. 47b). He is distinguished from the borrower of money, the "loweh" ( ), in that the...
BOTANY – Early Classification. The science that treats of plants. Like grammar and other sciences based on logical thought, scientific botany originated with the Greeks, and from them found its way to the Jews. Agriculture, gardening,...
BRAMBLE – A prickly shrub. The word serves as a translation for two Hebrew terms and a Greek one, all of which, however, should receive other renderings.(1) "Aṭad" ( = the Assyrian "eṭidu") figures in the parable of Jotham. It is the last...
BRIBERY – The offer or receipt of anything of value in corrupt payment for an official act done or to be done.The moral basis for the Jewish law against bribery is clearly expressed in Deut. xvi. 19-20; see also Ex. xxiii. 8. Divine...
BROTHER – Son of the same father and mother (or of either), but principally son of the same father and mother (see Gen. xlii. 3, 4, 5, 13; xliv. 11, 23, 29; II Sam. xiii. 4 et seq.; Judges ix. 3). The brother was expected to give his...
CARCHEMISH – City of northern Syria, on the Euphrates. Its importance seems to have been based on its situation at the end of the most direct route from the mouth of the Orontes to the Euphrates and to Harran. This position explains why it...
CARINTHIA – A crownland of Austria. It has but a small number of Jews, whose ancestors, with the Jews of the neighboring crownlands, Carniola (Krain) and Styria (Steiermark), shared the vicissitudes of their brethren in the Austrian empire....
CARITES – People mentioned in II Kings xi. 4, 19. The Kari (R. V., "Carites"; margin, "executioners", A. V., "captains") are mentioned between the captains over hundreds and the "runners" (i.e., satellites) as body-guards of the king. In...
CARPI, SOLOMON JOSEPH B. NATHAN – Italian writer; born Dec. 27, 1715; lived at Leghorn. He engaged in the controversy with regard to Ḥayyon's book on Shabbethai Ẓebi, writing an attack on it, extracts from which were published by N. Brüll under the title...
CARPI, ZACHARIAH – Italian revolutionist; born at Revere in the second half of the eighteenth century. After the French Revolution he appears to have engaged in plots against the Austrian government of Lombardy; and on March 25, 1799, he and his...
CARREGAL(Caregal, Carigal, Carrigal, Karigal, Karigel, Karigol, Kargol, Kragol), RAPHAEL ḤAYYIM ISAAC – Raphael Ḥayyim Isaac Carregal.(From a portrait in the possession of Rev. J. L. Jenkins.)Itinerant rabbi and preacher; born in Hebron, Palestine, Oct. 15, 1733; died at Barbados, West Indies, May 5, 1777. He was ordained rabbi at...
CASTROJERIZ – Town in southern Castile, 18 miles west of Burgos. Jews lived there as early as the period of the Moorish rule. In the charter ("fuero") granted to the town in 974 by Garci Fernandez, count of Castile, it is ordered that the...
CAT – There is no reference to the cat in the Old Testament, the domestication of that animal being later than the Bible, except in Egypt, where it was reverenced as a divine being, and probably thus became tame. Victor Hehn...
CATACOMBS – Underground galleries with excavations in their sides for tombs or in which human bones are stacked. The term is derived from "catacomba," a compound of the Greek κατά and the Latin "comba" ("cumba"), and means "near the...
CAUTION – Warning given to witnesses before testimony. Neither Biblical nor rabbinical law requires a witness to confirm his testimony by an oath. Jewish casuists are of opinion that the witness who would not tell the truth without an...
CEDRON – 1. Name of the brook Kidron as given in John xviii. 1. Near the stream was the garden in which Jesus was taken by the officials after he had been betrayed by Judas (see Kidron).2. A place mentioned in connection with Jamnia (the...
CEMETERY – A place for the burial of the dead. The word "cemetery" is derived from the Greek κομιητήριον, "the place where the dead sleep" (from κοιμάω ("to sleep"), used of the dead in I Kings xi. 43, LXX.; II Macc. xii. 45; Ecclus....
CENSORSHIP OF HEBREW BOOKS – Censorship is the regulation, first decreed by the Church and then carried out either by that institution or by the state, whereby books (both manuscript and printed) were examined for the purpose of ascertaining whether they...
CENSUS – A numbering of the people. Several cases are given in the Bible. The first mentioned is that in Num. i. (from which the book receives its name), when the males—i.e., men capable of bearing arms—numbered 603,550 at the Exodus....
CHAMBERLAIN, HOUSTON STEWART – Anglo-German musical critic and anti-Semitic writer; born Sept. 9, 1855, at Portsmouth, England; son of Admiral W. C. Chamberlain. He received his early education abroad, being sent to France, where he went to school at...
CHEMNITZ – Town in Saxony, with a Jewish population of 1,150. Jews first settled there in the latter half of the nineteenth century. In 1874 they organized a congregation, although on feast-days religious services had been held since 1871....