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ORNSTEIN, ẒEBI HIRSCH – Austrian rabbi; born at Lemberg; died there March 21, 1888; son of Mordecai Zeeb Ornstein, and grandson of Jacob Meshullam Ornstein, rabbi of that city. He was educated by his grandfather and father, and while quite young...
ORPAH – A Moabitess; daughter-in-law of Naomi, and wife of Mahlon. After the death of her husband, Orpah and her sister-in-law Ruth wished to go to Judea with Naomi. She was persuaded, however, by Naomi to return to her people and to...
ORPHAN – A child bereft of one or both parents, more commonly the latter .—Biblical Data: The Authorized Version, in all cases but one, renders "yatom," the Hebrew word for "orphan," by "fatherless"; the exception being in Lam. v. 3,...
OX – Biblical Data: Among the agricultural Semites the ox or bull had a sacred character. Thus in Sabea it was sacred to Athtar (comp. Mordtmann in "Z. D. M. G." xxx. 289, and Barton in "Hebraica," x. 58); at Tyre, Astarte was...
PADOVANI, ELISHAMA MEÏR – Italian Talmudist of the eighteenth century; born in Modena; died at Padua 1830. He was educated and first served as rabbi in his native place; he then became joint rabbi at Mantua with Jacob Cases, and, finally, rabbi of Padua,...
PADUA, JACOB MEïR – Russian rabbi; born in Brest-Litovsk; died there Dec. 12, 1854. He was a descendant of the Katzenellenbogen family which had been prominent in Brest for more than three centuries. His father, Ḥayyim (d. 1837), and his...
PALESTINE, LAWS AND CUSTOMS RELATING TO – Special laws, operative only in the Holy Land, are called "miẓwot ha-teluyot ba-areẓ," and may be classified as follows: (1) Laws that were in force at the time of the Temple ("bi-zeman habayit") and in connection with the...
PALṬIYA (PELAṬYA) OF NAWEH – Palestinian haggadist of the third century. He is cited but once, as author of a derashah. The haggadists consider the phraseology of Eccl. i. 4 peculiar, unless the expression "The earth abideth for ever" implies the perpetuity...
PARADISE – Biblical Data: The word "paradise" is probably of Persian origin. It occurs but three times in the Old Testament, namely, in Cant. iv. 13, Eccl. ii. 5, and Neh. ii. 8. In the first of these passages it means "garden"; in the...
PARADISE – Biblical Data: The word "paradise" is probably of Persian origin. It occurs but three times in the Old Testament, namely, in Cant. iv. 13, Eccl. ii. 5, and Neh. ii. 8. In the first of these passages it means "garden"; in the...
PARADISE – Biblical Data: The word "paradise" is probably of Persian origin. It occurs but three times in the Old Testament, namely, in Cant. iv. 13, Eccl. ii. 5, and Neh. ii. 8. In the first of these passages it means "garden"; in the...
PARADISE – Biblical Data: The word "paradise" is probably of Persian origin. It occurs but three times in the Old Testament, namely, in Cant. iv. 13, Eccl. ii. 5, and Neh. ii. 8. In the first of these passages it means "garden"; in the...
PARALLELISM IN HEBREW POETRY – It is now generally conceded that parallelism is the fundamental law, not only of the poetical, but even of the rhetorical and therefore of higher style in general in the Old Testament. By parallelism in this connection is...
PARASHIYYOT, THE FOUR – Besides the weekly lesson or parashah that is read from the scroll of the Law every Sabbath, there is sometimes read after it an additional portion appropriate to the particular day. Among such occasional Sabbaths are the two...
PARTNERSHIP – The word "shotefin" is used in the Mishnah almost always to denote joint owners, especially of land. In the language of later ages, when the Jews had become a people of traders, the word with the corresponding forms of the verb...
PASSOVER – Biblical Data: The Biblical account connects the term with the root (= "to pass by," "to spare"; Ex. xii. 13, 23, 27; comp. Isa. xxxi. 5). As a derivative designates (1) a festival and (2) the sacrificial lamb and meal...
PASSOVER SACRIFICE – The sacrifice which the Israelites offered at the command of God during the night before the Exodus from Egypt, and which they ate with special ceremonies according to divine direction. The blood of this sacrifice sprinkled on...
PATERNITY – Fatherhood. Doubtful paternity involves not only the right of inheritance, but also, if the father be a kohen, the claim of priesthood with all its privileges and restrictions, including those regarding incest and prohibited...
PATRIARCHS, THE – Biblical Data: As early as the Biblical period Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob are nearly always invoked together. God remembers the covenant which He has made with the three Patriarchs, and will therefore liberate their descendants...
PEACE – Biblical Data: The primary meaning of the word is "prosperity," "health" (Jer. xxix. 7; Job xv. 21 [A. V. "prosperity"]; Isa. xlviii. 18; Ps. cxxii. 6; Abot iii. 2). It is used in salutations, as when Jacob asked the shepherds...
PEACE, KISS OF – Sacramental rite in the Christian Church, preceding the mass or communion service. It appears to be referred to in Rom. xvi. 16, I Cor. xvi. 20, II Cor. xiii. 12, and elsewhere, and is referred to by Justin Martyr ("Apologia,"...
PEACE-OFFERING – There are three kinds of peace-offering: (1) the thank-offering ( ); (2) the votive-offering ( ); and (3) the free-will offering ( ). The thank-offering is a response to acts of divine beneficence; the votive and the free-will...
PEARL – Biblical Data: Since ancient times the precious product of the pearl-oyster (Mytilus margaritifer Linn.) has been known and has been an article of commerce (comp. Pliny, ix. 35, 54 et seq.; Ælian, x. 13, xv. 18). The ancients,...
PENTECOST – Name given by the Greek-speaking Jews to the festival which occurred fifty days (ἡ πεντηκόστη, sc. ἡΜέρα = "Ḥag Ḥamishshim Yom"; comp. Lev. xxiii. 16) after the offering of the barley sheaf during the Passover feast (Tobit ii....
PERAḤYAH, AARON B. ḤAYYIM (ABRAHAM) HA-KOHEN – Rabbi and author; flourished at Salonica in the seventeenth century; a pupil of Ḥasdai Peraḥyah ha-Kohen. He was the author of the following four works: (1) "Paraḥ Maṭṭeh Aharon" (Amsterdam, 1703), responsa written between the...