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The unedited full-text of the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia
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RAPA (PORTO), MENAHEM ABRAHAM B. JACOB HA-KOHEN (MENAHEM RAPOPORT) – Italian rabbi and author; lived at Porto, in the district of Verona, and at Cremona; died Dec. 30, 1596. He was a descendant of the Rapa family, but he changed his name to Rapoport (i.e., Rapa of Porto). Early in life Menahem...
RAPA (PORTRAPA), SIMḤAH BEN GERSHOM HA-KOHEN – Talmudic scholar and author of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries; born at Porto, Italy; died at Vienna. He was a younger cousin of Menahem Abraham Rapa; when the latter changed his name to Rapoport, Simḥah began to call...
RAPHAEL BEN JEKUTHIEL SÜSSKIND HA-KOHEN – Talmudist and author; born in Livonia Nov. 4, 1722; died at Altona Nov. 26, 1803. He was educated at Minsk under Aryeh Löb ben Asher, whose successor as head of the yeshibah of that town he became in 1742. In 1744 he was called...
REAL ESTATE – Landed property. The differences between landed or immovable and chattel or movable property have been indicated in the articles Alienation, Appraisement, Debts of Decedent, Deed, Execution, Fraud and Mistake, Infancy, Ona'ah,...
REBEKAH – Biblical Data: Daughter of Bethuel, sister of Laban, and wife of Isaac (Gen. xxii. 23, xxiv. 29, 67). Abraham sent his servant Eliezer to seek a wife for Isaac. Arriving with his attendants at Aram-naharaim, Eliezer stopped near...
RECHABITES – Biblical Data: Members of a family descended from Hammath, the progenitor of the house of Rechab; otherwise known as the Kenites (I Chron. ii. 55), who were the descendants of Hobab (Jethro), the father-in-law of Moses (Judges...
RECHABITES – Biblical Data: Members of a family descended from Hammath, the progenitor of the house of Rechab; otherwise known as the Kenites (I Chron. ii. 55), who were the descendants of Hobab (Jethro), the father-in-law of Moses (Judges...
REINES, ISAAC JACOB B. SOLOMON NAPHTALI – Russian rabbi, and founder of the "Mizraḥi," or Orthodox, branch of the Zionist organization; a descendant of Saul Wahl; born in Karlin, government of Minsk, Oct. 27, 1839. His father, a native of Wilna, who lived several years...
RESTRAINTS ON ALIENATION – Restraints on the power to sell or encumber land are known to many systems of jurisprudence. The institution of the year of jubilee (see Sabbatical Year), as set forth in Lev. xxv. 8-28, is the most rigid restraint upon the free...
RESURRECTION – Biblical Data: Like all ancient peoples, the early Hebrews believed that the dead go down into the underworld and live there a colorless existence (comp. Isa. xiv. 15-19; Ezek. xxxii. 21-30). Only an occasional person, and he an...
RESURRECTION – Biblical Data: Like all ancient peoples, the early Hebrews believed that the dead go down into the underworld and live there a colorless existence (comp. Isa. xiv. 15-19; Ezek. xxxii. 21-30). Only an occasional person, and he an...
RETALIATION – In the early period of all systems of law the redress of wrongs takes precedence over the enforcement of contract rights, and a rough sense of justice demands the infliction of the same loss and pain on the aggressor as he has...
REUBEN – Biblical Data: Eldest son of Jacob (Gen. xlvi. 8, xlix. 9) by Leah (ib. xxix. 32), to whom he once carried mandrakes which he had found in a field during the wheat harvest (ib. xxx. 14). He wronged his father by his conduct with...
REUBEN, TRIBE OF – Tribe of Israel, descended from Reuben, Jacob's first-born son, through Reuben's four sons, Hanoch, Phallu or Pallu, Hezron, and Carmi (Gen. xlvi. 9 and elsewhere), fathers of the four clans of the tribe. At the time of the...
REUBEN BEN ḤAYYIM – Provençal Talmudist; flourished about the middle of the thirteenth century; brother of the liturgical poet Abraham benḤayyim. Reuben, who lived at Narbonne, was a pupil of Isaac ha-Kohen of that city, and teacher of Menahem...
REUBEN HA-SEFARDI – Reputed author of "Kelimmat ha-Goyim," a work which attacks Christianity, probably written by Profiat Duran (Efodi) in 1349. The assumption is that the "Kelimmat ha-Goyim" is the same as the "Sefer ha-Kelimmah" mentioned by...
RIBKAS, MOSES BEN ẒEBI NAPHTALI HIRSCH SOFER – Russian Talmudist; died at Wilna in 1671 or 1672. He was a member of a Prague family, but settled early in life at Wilna. In 1655, in consequence of the war between Poland and Russia, he was compelled to flee from the city,...
RICCHI (RAPHAEL), IMMANUEL ḤAY BEN ABRAHAM – Italian rabbi, cabalist, and poet; born at Ferrara 1688 (1693, according to Jellinek in "Orient, Lit." vii. 232); killed near Cento Feb. 25, 1743. About two years after Ricchi's birth his father removed to Rovigo, where he died...
RIGHT OF EMINENT DOMAIN – The inherent power of the sovereign or state to take private property, generally land, for public use, especially for a highway, with or without compensation. The Mishnah says of the king in mentioning his powers: "He leads the...
RIGHT OF WAY – The law in general distinguishes between the right of private way (that is, A's right to pass over a certain strip of B's land) and that of public way (the right of everybody to pass over a strip of land which may or may not be...
RIPARIAN OWNERS – There being but little river navigation in the Holy Land, the Mishnah says nothing as to the rights and duties of landowners along the river-bank, except in reference to irrigation. It teaches (Giṭ. v. 8) that for the sake of...
ROADS – In primitive times the chief use of roads in Palestine was to afford communication with markets. Later on roads were used for military purposes, for the movement of troops and commissariat. Of the three great trading countries...
ROBBERY – In law the taking of the movable property of another under constraint of force or fear; in the Bible the word is sometimes applied to the forcible taking of land or of slaves. From the penalty for robbery (at least under certain...
ROBBIO, MORDECAI – Talmudist of the seventeenth century; lived probably in northern Italy. Under the title "Shemen ha-Mor" he wrote responsato the four ritual codices, with an appendix consisting of "exhortations" to his son (Leghorn,...
RONSBURG, BEZALEL B. JOEL – Bohemian Talmudist and rabbi; born 1760; died Sept. 25, 1820, in Prague, where he was dayyan and head of the yeshibah. Zacharias Frankel was one of his pupils.Ronsburg was the author of "Horah Gaber" (Prague, 1802), commentary...