JewishEncyclopedia.com

The unedited full-text of the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia
- Phrase search: "names of god"
- Exclude terms: "names of god" -zerah
- Volume/Page: v9 p419
- Diacritics optional: Ḥanukkah or hanukkah
- Search by Author: altruism author:Hirsch
search tips & recommendations

Executive Committee of the Editorial Board.,

Contributions:
ROQUEMARTINE, DAVID – French scholar; a native of Roquemartine; flourished in the fourteenth century. He was the author of "Zekut Adam," giving an allegorical interpretation of the Biblical narrative of the sin of Adam, which, according to the...
ROSEN, JOSEPH B. ISAAC – Ab bet din and, subsequently, rabbi in Russia; born in the first half of the nineteenth century at Horodok, near Pinsk; died Jan. 12, 1885 (Ṭebet 25). His father destined him for a commercial career, but the youth preferred to...
ROTHENBURG, MOSES BEN MORDECAI SÜSSKIND – German rabbi; born about 1665; died at Altona Jan. 12, 1712. He was successively rabbi of Tykoczin, Brest-Litovsk, and Altona. In the last-mentioned town he at first shared the rabbinate with Ẓebi Hirsch Ashkenazi (Ḥakam Ẓebi);...
ROTHSCHILD, MENAHEM MENDEL (BACHARACH, ASHKENAZI) – German rabbi; born in Frankfort-on-the-Main about 1650; died in Worms Oct., 1731. He was the grandson of Isaac, head of the Frankfort community and progenitor of the Rothschild family, and the son of Solomon, "Landesrabbiner" of...
RUTH, BOOK OF – The Book of Ruth, which is poetically idyllic in character, although the narrative is in the form of prose, contains an episode from the period of the Judges. For this reason it is placed in the Septuagint after the Book of...
RUTH, BOOK OF – The Book of Ruth, which is poetically idyllic in character, although the narrative is in the form of prose, contains an episode from the period of the Judges. For this reason it is placed in the Septuagint after the Book of...
SAADIA BEN NAḤMANI – Liturgical poet and perhaps also Biblical commentator; lived in the eleventh and twelfth centuries. He was the author of a piyyuṭ for the first "Ma'arib" of the Feast of Tabernacles, beginning "Sukkat shalem selah," and...
SABBATH – The seventh day of the week; the day of rest.—Biblical Data: On the completion of His creative work God blessed and hallowed the seventh day as the Sabbath (Gen. ii. 1-3). The Decalogue in Exodus (xx. 8) reverts to this fact as...
SABBATICAL YEAR AND JUBILEE – Biblical Injunctions. The septennate or seventh year, during which the land is to lie fallow, and the celebration of the fiftieth year after seven Sabbatical cycles. As regards the latter, the Hebrew term "yobel" refers to the...
SACKHEIM, ABRAHAM BEN JOSEPH – Lithuanian scholar and Talmudist; died at Wilna June 26, 1872. He was well versed in rabbinics, as may be seen from his "Yad ha-Ḥazaḳah," a casuistic commentary on the Pesaḥ Haggadah (Wilna, 1835; the editor's name appears in...
SACKHEIM, TOBIAH B. ARYEH LÖB – Russian Talmudist and communal worker; died in Rosinoi, government of Grodno, at an advanced age, Jan. 28, 1822. He was a descendant in the sixth generation of Israel b. Shalom of that town, who suffered martyrdom on Rosh...
SAGERIN – Leader of the women in public prayer. The separation of the sexes at Jewish worship was insisted on even in the days of the Temple (Suk. 51b); but women were by tradition recognized as entitled to appoint a prayer-leader from...
SAHL BEN MAẒLIAḤ HA-KOHEN AL-MU'ALLIM ABU AL-SARI – Karaite philosopher and writer; born at Jerusalem 910. He belonged to the Rechabites, and was one of the apostles of the Karaites who traveled extensively to win new adherents for Karaism and thereby strengthen the failing faith...
SALAMANDER – According to the Talmud, a species of toad which lives on land but enters the water at the breeding season (Ḥul. 127a; Lewysohn, "Z. T." §§ 277, 278). It generally appears, however, as a fabulous animal, generated in fire and...
SALEM, ASHER BEN IMMANUEL – Turkish scholar of the eighteenth century. He was the author of "Maṭṭeh Asher" (Salonica, 1748), containing responsa, novellæ on some parts of the "Yad ha-Ḥazaḳah," laws concerning the slaughtering of animals after the method of...
SAMAEL – Prince of the demons, and an important figure both in Talmudic and in post-Talmudic literature, where he appears as accuser, seducer, and destroyer. His name is etymologized as = "the venom of God," since he is identical with...
SAMARITANS – Properly, inhabitants of Samaria. The name is now restricted to a small tribe of people living in Nablus (Shechem) and calling themselves "Bene Yisrael," or sometimes . Their history as a distinct community begins with the...
SAMBATION, SANBATION, SABBATION (SAMBAṬYON) – Earliest Mention. In rabbinical literature the river across which the ten tribes were transported by Shalmaneser, King of Assyria, and about which so many legends subsequently accumulated that it was considered by some scholars...
SAMUEL (SANWEL) BEN AARON BENJAMIN – Scribe at Worms in the seventeenth century. After the fire of 1689 (Lewysohn, "Nafshot Ẓaddiḳim," p. 73, Frankfort-on-the-Main, 1855) he left Worms and settled in Hamburg. He was the author of "Ḥidah Mezuḳḳaḳah u-Ẓerufah," a...
SAMUEL IBN ABUN B. YAḤYA – Arabo-Jewish poet of the eleventh century; great-grandfather of Samuel ibn Nazar and a contemporary of Moses ibn Ezra. A poem of his with the acrostic was edited from the fourth section of the Oran Maḥzor by Luzzatto in "Kerem...
SAMUEL BEN ALEXANDER OF HALBERSTADT – German rabbi and scientist; perhaps a resident of Frankfort-on-the-Oder; died July 6, 1707. He was the author of "Peri Megadim," an alphabetical index to Shulḥan 'Aruk, Ḥoshen Mishpaṭ (Frankfort-on-the-Oder, 1691).Bibliography:...
SAMUEL BEN DAVID MOSES HA-LEVI OF MESERITZ – Polish Talmudist; born about 1625; died April 24, 1681, at Kleinsteinbach, Bavaria. As a wandering scholar he is found for a time at Meseritz and then at Halberstadt. In 1660 he was rabbi of Bamberg, with his residence at...
SAMUEL OF ESCALETA – French Talmudist, poet, and philanthropist of the fourteenth century. Jacob of Provence considers him one of the first poets of Provence. His piety, learning, and generosity also were praised by his contemporaries. At first he...
SAMUEL OF EVREUX – French tosafist of the thirteenth century. He is identified by Gross with Samuel ben Shneor (not ben Yom-Ṭob, as given by Zunz in "Z. G." p. 38), whose explanations of Nazir are cited by Solomon ben Adret (Responsa, iii., No....
SAMUEL IBN ḤAYYIM – Medieval liturgical poet; the time and place of his birth are unknown. He composed eighty-two liturgical poems, of which the four mentioned last by Zunz in his addenda are intended for the Simḥat Torah festival. Twice the author...