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The unedited full-text of the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia
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SCHREIBER, MOSES B. SAMUEL – German rabbi; born at Frankfort-on-the-Main Sept. 14, 1763; died at Presburg Oct. 3, 1839. His mother's name was Reisil. At the age of nine he entered the yeshibah of R. Nathan Adler at Frankfort, and when only thirteen years...
SCHREIBER, SIMON – Austrian rabbi; born at Presburg, Hungary, 1821; died March 25, 1883, at Cracow; son of Moses Schreiber. In 1842 he became rabbi of Mattersdorf; in 1857 he declined a call from the congregation of Papa; and in 1860 he accepted a...
SCHUDT, JOHANN JAKOB – German polyhistor and Orientalist; born at Frankfort-on-the-Main Jan. 14, 1664; died there Feb. 14, 1722. He studied theology at Wittenberg, and went to Hamburg in 1684 to study Orientalia under Ezra Edzardi. He then settled in...
SCHULHOF, ISAAC BEN ZALMAN BEN MOSES – Austrian rabbi; born about 1650 at Prague; died there Jan. 19, 1733. He settled in Ofen as the rabbi of a small congregation, and in 1686, when that city was stormed by the imperialists, he was overwhelmed by calamities. His...
SCHULTENS, ALBERT – Dutch Orientalist; born at Gröningen Aug. 23, 1686; died Jan. 26, 1756. He studied Arabic at Leyden under Van Til, and at Utrecht under Reland. He took his degree (Doctor of Theology) at Gröningen in 1709; became teacher of...
SCROLL OF THE LAW – Every One to Possess a Sefer Torah. The Pentateuch, written on a scroll of parchment. The Rabbis count among the mandatory precepts incumbent upon every Israelite the obligation to write a copy of the Pentateuch for his personal...
SEDER 'OLAM RABBAH – Title and Divisions. Earliest post-exilic chronicle preserved in the Hebrew language. In the Babylonian Talmud this chronicle is several times referred to simply as the "Seder 'Olam" (Shab. 88a; Yeb. 82b; Nazir 5a; Meg. 11b;...
SEDER 'OLAM ZUṬA – Genealogy of the Exilarchs. Anonymous chronicle, called "Zuṭa" (= "smaller," or "younger") to distinguish it from the older "Seder 'Olam Rabbah." This work is based upon, and to a certain extent completes and continues, the...
SEDUCTION – The act of inducing a woman or girl of previously chaste character to consent to unlawful sexual intercourse. The Mosaic law (Ex.xxii. 15, 16, Hebr. [A. V. 16, 17]) says: "And if a man entice a virgin that is not betrothed and...
SEELIG (ABI 'EZRI) BEN ISAAC MARGOLIOTH – Polish Talmudist of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries; born at Polock; died probably in Palestine. He was preacher at Prague and at Kalisz; and after the death of Israel Darshan he went to Yaroslav. From 1701 to 1711 he...
SEFIROT, THE TEN – Doctrine of Emanation. Potencies or agencies by means of which, according to the Cabala, God manifested His existence in the production of the universe. The term is derived from the Hebrew noun "sefirah," which, meaning...
SHABABO V11p213001.jpg, JESHUA – Egyptian scribe and rabbi; lived in the last quarter of the seventeenth century. His teachers were Rabbis Abraham ha-Levi of Cairo and Joseph Nazir, who afterward became his father-in-law (see Joseph Nazir ben Ḥayyim Moses...
SHABBETHAI NAWAWI – Rabbi and scholar of the end of the seventeenth century; lived in Rosetta ( ), Egypt. He was a contemporary of Abraham b. Mordecai ha-Levi, in whose "Ginnat Weradim" some of his responsa are included. Responsa by him are quoted...
SHABBETHAI RAPHAEL – Shabbethaian agitator of the seventeenth century; a native of Morea. About 1667 Shabbethai Raphael was in Italy, where he assiduously preached and propagated the Shabbethaian teaching; but when the conversion to Islam of the...
SHAKNA, SHALOM – Polish Talmudist; born about 1510; died at Lublin Oct. 29, 1558. He was a pupil of Jacob Pollak, founder of the method of Talmudic study known as the Pilpul. By the year 1528 he had already become famous as a teacher, and...
SHALOM, ABRAHAM BEN ISAAC BEN JUDAH BEN SAMUEL – Italian scholar and theologian; died in 1492. In his "Neweh Shalom" (1574) he places Scriptural and Talmudic knowledge far above philosophy, although he admits that investigation is not only permissible, but necessary for the...
SHEMAIAH OF TROYES – Tosafist of the early part of the twelfth century; a pupil of Rashi; probably the father-in-law of Samuel b. Meïr. He appears as a tosafist in Ber. 13a, 25b; Pes. 114a; Ket. 61a; Ḳid. 26b, and is mentioned as a casuist by Judah...
SHEPHERD – In the early days of settlement in Palestine the chief occupation of the Israelites was that of shepherding. Traces of the importance of this occupation are found through the Old Testament. The shepherd's function was to lead...
SHISKES, SAUL B. JUDAH LÖB – Polish rabbinical scholar; died in Wilna, at an advanced age, March 28, 1797. He is chiefly known as the author of "Shebil ha-Yashar," on Alfasi, only the first part of which has been published (Wilna, 1839). Shiskes...
SHNEOR ZALMAN BEN BARUCH – Convert to Ḥasidism. Leader of the rational Ḥasidim called "ḤaBaD" (acrostic formed from "Ḥokmah," "Binah," "De'ah" = "Wisdom," "Understanding," "Knowledge"); born at Liozna, government of Moghilef, in 1747; died at Pyen, near...
SIBLONOT – Talmudic term for gifts presented to a bride by the bridegroom or by the parents. According to some authorities, the word is derived from the Greek σύμβολον, which means "gift or payment made in token of something" (Kohut,...
SILVA, HEZEKIAH – Jewish author; born at Leghorn in 1659; died at Jerusalem in 1698; son-in-law of the dayyan Mordecai Befael Malachi. About 1679 he left his native city for Jerusalem, where he attended the yeshibah of Moses Galante, and ten...
SIMCHOWITZ, SAMUEL – Russian rabbinical writer; born in the beginning of the nineteenth century; died at Slutzk March, 1896. He possessed a thorough rabbinical knowledge, and at the same time was well versed in modern literature. Numerous essays...
SIMEON BEN SAMUEL – Philosopher and cabalist of the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries; of French or German birth. He was the author of a work entitled "Adam Sikli," or "Hadrat Ḳodesh" (Freiburg? 1560), a philosophical and theological treatise on...
SIMEON BEN SAMUEL OF JOINVILLE – French tosafist and Biblical commentator of the thirteenth century. He is once referred to, erroneously, as Samson b. Samuel ("Sefer ha-Mordekai," B. B. ix., No. 639) and once as Shemaiah ("Haggahot Maimuniyyot" to Ishshut...