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The unedited full-text of the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia
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SPITZER, BENJAMIN SOLOMON – Austrian rabbi and champion of Orthodoxy; died in Vienna, at an advanced age, Dec. 5, 1893. He was the son-in-law of R. Moses Sofer, and was for more than forty years rabbi of the ultra-Orthodox congregation of Vienna, whose...
STADTHAGEN, JOSEPH – German rabbi, apologist, and author; died at Stadthagen Sept. 5, 1715; son of Samson of Metz, where his grandfather Joseph b. Isaac ha-Levi Ashkenazi (died at Frankfort-on-the-Main in 1628) officiated as rabbi for many years....
STAR-WORSHIP – Among the Israelites. This is perhaps the oldest form of idolatry practised by the ancients. According to Wisdom xiii. 2, the observation of the stars in the East very early led the people to regard the planets and the fixed...
STEINHARDT, JOSEPH B. MENAHEM MENDEL – German rabbi; born about 1720; died at Fürth in 1776; lived in early manhood at Schwabach in Bavaria. His first incumbency was the rabbinate of Rixheim, and shortly afterward he was elected chief rabbi of Upper Alsace. ln 1755...
STETTIN – District of Pomerania, with its capital of the same name. On Dec. 2, 1261, Duke Barnim I. of Pomerania ordered that the Jews of Stettin, and those of other parts of his duchy, should enjoy rights similar to those accorded the...
STRASHUN, MATHIAS – Russian Talmudist and writer; born in Wilna Oct. 1, 1817; died Dec. 13, 1885. He studied under Manasseh of Ilye and Isaac of Volozhin, who were highly impressed with his ability. Besides Talmud and Hebrew, Strashun acquired a...
STRASHUN, SAMUEL B. JOSEPH – Russian Talmudist; born in Zaskevich, government of Wilna, 1794; died in Wilna March 21, 1872. He was educated by his father, and became known as a proficient Talmudist. He married at an early age, and settled with his wife's...
SUCHOSTAVER, MORDECAI – Galician adherent of the Haskalah, and teacher of philosophy at the rabbinical seminary of Jitomir, Russia; born near Brody, Galicia, 1790; died at Jitomir July 29, 1880. As a youth he was the pupil of Nachman Krochmal. He left...
SUNDELES, ẒEBI HIRSCH BEN ENOCH – Polish scholar of the sixteenth century. He published the following works: "Tefillot mi-Kol ha-Shanah" (Lublin, 1571; Cracow, 1606), in collaboration with Koppelmann, and consisting of the Jewish daily prayers, with a...
SUSSMANN, EZRA BEN JEKUTHIEL – Polish scholar of the eighteenth century. He was the author of "Ḥoshen Yeshu'ot" (Minsk, 1802), a commentary on the Pirḳe Abot.Bibliography: Benjacob, Oẓar ha-Sefarim, p. 171; Fürst, Bibl. Jud. iii. 398; Zedner, Cat. Hebr. Books...
SUSSMANN, SHABBETHAI BEN ELIEZER – Scholar of the eighteenth century. He compiled under the title "Me'ir Natib" (Altona, 1793-1802) a general index, in three volumes, to the tosafot to the entire Talmud. In the introduction to this work he mentions as other works...
TABERNACLE – The portable tent-like structure that served the Israelites as a sanctuary during their wanderings in the wilderness and in the early period of their life in Palestine. It is chiefly in Ex. xxvi. and its parallel, ib. xxxvi....
TABOR – 1. Mountain of Palestine, the modern Jabal al-Ṭur, on the northern edge of the plain of Jezreel. It is a dome-shaped hill with softly rounded outlines, and rises about 400 m. above the surrounding plain and 562 m. above...
ṬAHARAH – Ceremony of washing a dead body before burial. This rite is performed by the members ("mit'assekim") of the "ḥebra ḳaddisha." The body is lifted from the ground, where it has been placed after death, and laid, feet toward the...
TAIKOS (V11p669002.jpg), GEDALIAH BEN ABRAHAM MENAHEM – German scholar of the eighteenth century. Under the title "Be'er ha-Torah" he translated into German the Pentateuch, the Hafṭarot, and the Five Scrolls, and published the work in Amsterdam in 1758. Taikos was the author of:...
TALMID ḤAKAM – Honorific title given to one well versed in the Law. Prizing knowledge, especially that of the Torah, above all worldly goods, the talmide ḥakamim formed in Jewish society a kind of aristocracy having many privileges and...
TANḤUM B. ELIEZER – Lithuanian rabbi and merchant; born 1746; died in Grodno Jan. 12, 1819. He was the son of R. Eliezer of Urle (Orle), in the government of Grodno, and succeeded his father in that rabbinate. Later he occupied the position of...
TANḤUM BAR JEREMIAH – Palestinian amora of the fourth century; pupil of R. Manis the Elder. In the town of Ḥefer in Galilee he once rendered a legal decision on a religious question, whereupon his attention was called to the fact that his action was...
TARTAK – Deity mentioned but once in the Bible (II Kings xvii. 31). His name occurs together with that of Nibhaz or Nibhan, who was a divinity of the Avites, a tribe colonized by Sargon on Israelitish soil. In the Babylonian Talmud...
TAUBES, AARON MOSES B. JACOB – Rumanian rabbi and author; born in Lemberg 1787; died in Jassy 1852. He became rabbi of Sniatyn and its districts in 1820, and in 1841 was appointed rabbi of Jassy, where he remained until his death. His works are: (1) "To'afot...
ṬAWWAH, ABRAHAM BEN JACOB IBN – Algerian Talmudist; flourished at Algiers in the sixteenth century. On his mother's side he was a grandson of Solomon b. Simeon Duran, and therefore a descendant of Naḥmanides and a great grandson of Simeon b. Ẓemaḥ Duran I., to...
TEKOA – City of southern Judea, frequently mentioned in the Old Testament. The "wise woman" who brought about the recall of Absalom was a resident of the city (II Sam. xiv. 2 et seq.), and it was also the home of the prophet Amos (i....
TELASSAR – City, along with Gozan, Haran, and Reseph, which Rabshakeh mentions as having been conquered by Sennacherib's predecessors (II Kings xix. 12; Isa. xxxvii. 12). This city was inhabited by the Bene 'Eden. The cuneiform...
TELL EL-AMARNA – Of the Eighteenth Dynasty. Name derived from the Beni'Amran or El-Amarna Bedouins, and now given to the extensive ruins and rock-cut tombs which are the last relics of the ancient royal city of Khut Aten. These ruins are in...
TEMAN – Originally, the name of a tribe and then of a district of the Edomites. In Biblical genealogy it is the name of the eldest son of Eliphaz, the first-born of Esau, and one of the "dukes" of Edom (Gen. xxxvi. 11, 15, 42; I Chron....