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The unedited full-text of the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia
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Executive Committee of the Editorial Board.,

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TIRZAH – 1. Ancient Canaanitish capital (Josh. xii. 24), which, from the context, seems to have been situated in the northern part of the country. Possibly, therefore, it should be distinguished from the Israelitish capital of the same...
TOBIA BEN MOSES HA-ABEL – Epoch and Attainments. Karaite scholar, Biblical commentator, liturgical poet, and translator; flourished at Constantinople in the eleventh and twelfth centuries. Fürst ("Gesch. des Karäert." ii. 198 et seq.) conjectures Tobia's...
TOBIAH BEN ELIJAH OF VIENNE (BURGUNDY) – French tosafist of the thirteenth century. He was a younger contemporary, and perhaps also a pupil, of Isaac ben Abraham of Dampierre, at whose funeral he was present in 1210. Authors of the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries...
TOCKELS, MORDECAI BEN ABRAHAM – German Talmudist; born at Lissa; died in Berlin June 12, 1743. As a poor young man he went to Berlin, where he was adopted by a Frau Tockels, whose name he adopted in gratitude for her kindness. Tockels' first wife was the...
TODROS BEN ISAAC – Talmudist; lived in Italy or in southern France in the latter part of the thirteenth century and the early part of the fourteenth. He was the author of novellæ on the Talmud treatise Nazir, which are still extant in manuscript...
TOLEDO – Interior of the Church of St. Maria la Blanca, Toledo, Formerly a Synagogue.(From a photograph.) Interior of "El Transito," Toledo, Formerly a Synagogue.(From a photograph.)Metropolitan city of Gothic and Moorish Spain, and...
TORT – Any wrongful act, neglect, or default whereby legal damage is caused to the person, property, or reputation of another. Liability arises either from contract or from tort. Direct and wilful tort is Trespass. Trespass on the...
TRABOT (TRABOTTI) – Family of Italian scholars of the fifteenth, sixteenth, and seventeenth centuries, which immigrated to Italy from France, so that several of its members bore the additional name "Ẓarfati." The most important representatives of...
TRABOT (TRABOTTI) – Family of Italian scholars of the fifteenth, sixteenth, and seventeenth centuries, which immigrated to Italy from France, so that several of its members bore the additional name "Ẓarfati." The most important representatives of...
TRABOT (TRABOTTI) – Family of Italian scholars of the fifteenth, sixteenth, and seventeenth centuries, which immigrated to Italy from France, so that several of its members bore the additional name "Ẓarfati." The most important representatives of...
TRANI – Family of scholars, members of which were prominent in Spain and the Levant.Aaron di Trani: Spanish tosafist; born in Castile; descendant of a family which produced several eminent Talmudists. He received his education under the...
TREE-WORSHIP – Trees have been objects of worship in all parts of the world (comp. Mannhardt, "Wald- und Feldkulte," Berlin, 1875). They were worshiped among the Semites (comp. Wellhausen, "Reste Arab. Heidentums," 2d ed., 1897, pp. 101 et...
TRESPASS – Injury done directly, in most cases purposely, to the person or property of another. Trespass on the person has been discussed under the head of Assault and Battery: it remains to speak of the Talmudic law of trespass on...
TRIBES, LOST TEN – According to the Bible, Tiglath-pileser (II Kings xv. 29) or Shalmaneser (ib. xvii. 6, xviii. 11), after the defeat of Israel, transported the majority of the inhabitants of the Northern Kingdom to Assyria, and placed them in...
TRUSTS AND TRUSTEES – It has been shown under Guardian and Ward and under Community how the Jewish law took notice of the various powers and duties of those to whom the property of orphan children or of the community was entrusted for management. But...
'UḲBA, MAR – Exilarch at Bagdad in the first half of the tenth century; the second exilarch to die in banishment. When Kohen Ẓedeḳ II. was appointed gaon of Pumbedita he became involved in a controversy with Mar 'Uḳba over the revenues from...
'UḲẒIN – Name of a treatise of the Mishnah and the Tosefta, dealing chiefly with the conveyance of ritual impurity by means of the roots, stalks, and hulls of plants. In the Mishnah it is the twelfth and last treatise of the order...
ULLA – One of the leading halakic amoraim in Palestine during the latter part of the third and in the beginning of the fourth century. In his youth he studied under R. Eleazar II. (Tos. to Ḥul. 34a, s.v. "Man Ḥabraya"); and he...
URI BEN DAVID BEN MOSES – Great-grandson of Samuel Edels (MaHaRSHA); rabbi of Pollno, Lithuania, and chief rabbi of the district; flourished in the middle of the seventeenth century. He was the author of "Or Torah" (Lublin, 1672), commentaries and...
URI (ORI) BEN SIMEON – Scholar of the sixteenth century; born at Biel ( ); resided at Safed. He made an abstract of a manuscript of 1537, giving a list of all the places said to contain the tombs of the Patriarchs, Prophets, Amoraim, and Tannaim, to...
USURY – In modern language this term denotes a rate of interest greater than that which the law or public opinion permits; but the Biblical law, in all dealings among Israelites, forbids all "increase" of the debt by reason of lapse of...
VASHTI – Biblical Data: The first wife of Ahasuerus; her disobedience and subsequent punishment furnish the theme for the introduction to the story of Esther. The name is held to be that of an Elamite goddess.Bibliography: Wildeboer,...
VECCHIO, DEL – Italian family, tracing its descent from the period of the destruction of the Second Temple. Some members of this family were called also ("the old ones"). Its most important members were the following:Abraham ben Shabbethai del...
VEGA, JUDAH – Rabbi and author; flourished in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. Vega was the first rabbi of the second synagogue of Amsterdam, Neweh Shalom, which was established in 1608. After a short time he resigned his office, and...
VENTURA – Family of rabbis and scholars prominent in Italy and Greece in the sixteenth, seventeenth, and eighteenth centuries.Eliezer ben Samuel Ventura: Italian scholar of the sixteenth century; born at Da Porta, province of Perugia;...