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The unedited full-text of the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia
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VIDAL OF TOLOSA – Spanish scholar of the latter half of the fourteenth century. He resided in Catalonia, where he prepared his most important work, "Maggid Mishneh," a commentary on Maimonides' "Yad." This work covered the entire contents of the...
VOLTERRA, AARON ḤAI – Liturgical poet of the first half of the eighteenth century; rabbi of the Italian communities in Massa e Carrara. He was the author of a prayer entitled "Baḳḳashah," or "Elef Shin." The latter name, however, is misleading; for...
WALDEN, AARON BEN ISAIAH NATHAN – Polish Talmudist, editor, and author; born at Warsaw about 1835. Walden, who is an ardent adherent of Ḥasidism, is known especially for his "Shem ha-Gedolim he-Ḥadash" (Warsaw, 1864), a work of the same nature as Azulai's "Shem...
WALLER STEIN, ABRAHAM BEN ASHER – German scholar and rabbi of the eighteenth century; officiated in Schnaittach, Bavaria. He was the author of the following works: "Ma'amar Abraham" (Fürth, 1757), Hebrew sermons on the weekly lessons of the entire Pentateuch;...
WAR – Details. —Biblical Data: The earliest war recorded in the Old Testament is that of the Elamitic king Chedorlaomer and his allies against the five kings of Sodom and its adjacent cities (Gen. xiv. 1et seq.). The result of the...
WARRANTY OF TITLE – The Hebrew term for warranty of title is (= "future"), the same word denoting the force of an attested deed which served as a mortgage on all lands owned by the debtor at the time of its delivery. Whenever lands or slaves were...
WATER-DRAWING, FEAST OF – At the morning service on each of the seven days of the Feast of Tabernacles (Sukkot) a libation of water was made together with the pouring out of wine (Suk. iv. 1; Yoma 26b), the water being drawn from the Pool of Siloam in a...
WEIL, JACOB – German rabbi and Talmudist; flourished during the first half of the fifteenth century. Of his life no details are known, but, according to Grätz, he died before 1456. He was one of the foremost pupils of Jacob Mölln (MaHaRIL),...
WEIL, NETHANEEL – Rabbi and Talmudist; born at Stühlingen in 1687; died at Rostadt May 7, 1769; son of Naphtali Hirsch Weil. His mother took him to Fürth when he was ten years old, and soon afterward to Prague, where his father's brother, Lippman...
WEIL, SIMEON HIRSCH – German scholar; son of Nethaneel Weil; lived in Carlsruhe in the eighteenth century. He published his father's "Netib Ḥayyim," "Torat Netan'el," and responsa, and wrote "Sefer Eldad ha-Dani" (with a German translation;...
WEIL, TIAH (JEDIDIAH) – German rabbi; born at Prague Oct. 2, 1721; died at Carlsruhe Oct. 10, 1805. He was the son of Nethaneel Weil and received his early instruction from his father. In 1744 he married Gitel, daughter of Jacob Eger, a well-to-do...
WEISSMANN, ASHER (ARTHUR) SIMḤAH – Austrian scholar and publicist; born at Zelynia, Galicia, April 21, 1840; died at Vienna May 14, 1892. He received a rabbinical training in his native town and in the yeshibah of Rzeszow, whereupon he (1871) took up the study of...
WERNIKOVSKI, JUDAH – Russian Talmudical educator; born in Slonim, government of Grodno, 1823; died in Jerusalem Feb. 20, 1901. In his childhood he was known as an "'illui," or prodigy in Talmudical learning. He was married at the age of eleven; he...
WIDOW – Prerogatives of a Widow. The law of Israel treats the widow as a privileged person, and seeks to indemnify her in some degree for the loss of her natural protector. Thus the movable property of a widow can not be attached for...
WIENER-NEUSTADT – City of Austria; situated thirteen miles south of Vienna. Jews settled in this city probably shortly after its foundation in the twelfth century, records showing that Duke Frederick II., on June 9, 1239, issued an order...
WIGA, JUDAH – Polish preacher of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. The name so written is given by Sternberg ("Gesch. der Juden in Polen," p. 183), apparently taken from Polish sources, and ascribed to a famous preacher of Lublin....
WILL – The legal instrument by which a person disposes of his property, or of a part thereof, and which takes effect after his death, but the provisions of which may be changed or revoked at any time before death.The ordinary...
WINE – Biblical Data: The juice of the grape is the subject of special praise in the Scriptures. The "vine tree" is distinguished from the other trees in the forest (Ezek. xv. 2). The fig-tree is next in rank to the vine (Deut. viii....
WOLF BEN JOSEPH OF DESSAU – German scholar and author; born at Dessau in 1762; died there March 16, 1826. Left an orphan at an early age, he was educated by his father-in-law, Reb Gumpel; and in 1775 he lived with his uncle, Jacob Benscher, at Berlin,...
WOMAN, RIGHTS OF – The problem of the rights of woman in Jewish law and custom is presented mainly in five phases: (1) the power of the father over his daughter; (2) woman's right of inheritance; (3) the powers and duties of the husband; (4)...
YAḲḲAR BEN SAMUEL HA-LEVI I. – German scholar of the eleventh century; lived for a short time in Speyer. He was a pupil of Kalonymus of Rome, and questions addressed by him to Kalonymus have been preserved ("Shibbole ha-Leḳet," viii.); several of these...
YAḲḲAR BEN SAMUEL HA-LEVI II. – German scholar and liturgical poet of the second half of the thirteenth ceutury; flourished in Cologneand in Mayence. He was related to Meïr of Rothenburg, in whose responsa he is several times mentioned; and he was a pupil of...
YERUSHALMI, SOLOMON B. MENAHEM – Scholar of the early part of the sixteenth century. He wrote a commentary on the Book of Ruth which he entitled "Perush 'al Rut" (Salonica, 1551; 2d ed. [together with the "Pardes Rimmonim"], Sabbionetta, 1554).Bibliography:...
YESHU'AH (JESHUAH) BEN ELIJAH HA-LEVI – African scholar and, perhaps, liturgical poet; of unknown date. He collected the poems of Judah ha-Levi into a diwan, providing the volume with an Arabic introduction and heading most of the poems with superscriptions in which...
YESHU'AH (JESHUAH) BEN JOSEPH HA-LEVI – Algerian Talmudist of the fifteenth century; born at Tlemçen. In 1467, owing to the massacres of the Jews of Tlemçen committed by the Spaniards at that time, Yeshu'ah, still a young man, fled from his native town, with the...