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The unedited full-text of the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia
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YEẒER HA-RA' – Evil inclination or impulse, popularly identified with the lusts of the flesh. The idea is derived from Gen. viii. 21: "the imagination of the heart of man is evil from his youth." Yet from the use of the two "yods" in Gen. ii....
YOM-ṬOB BEN ABRAHAM ISHBILI – Famous Talmudic commentator of the first half of the fourteenth century. He received his name from the city of Seville; but was living at Alcolea de Cinca in 1342. He was gifted with a clear, acute mind, and was a pupil of Aaron...
ẒAHALON – A family of Spanish origin; represented by members who, after the exile from Spain, settled in Italy and the Orient, where they distinguished themselves as rabbis and scholars.Abraham ben Isaac Ẓahalon: Talmudist and cabalist of...
ẒARFATI, ẒAREFATI – Epithet frequently applied in rabbinical literature to Jews of French birth or descent. Among those so called may be mentioned: Meïr Ẓarfati, whom Carmoly sought to identify with the Meïr ha-Kohen of Narbonne who emigrated to...
ẒARFATI, ẒAREFATI – Epithet frequently applied in rabbinical literature to Jews of French birth or descent. Among those so called may be mentioned: Meïr Ẓarfati, whom Carmoly sought to identify with the Meïr ha-Kohen of Narbonne who emigrated to...
ẒEBI HIRSCH B. SIMON – Lithuanian Talmudist; lived in the middle of the eighteenth century. He was dayyan and preacher in the community of Vitebsk during the rabbinates of R. Isaiah and R. Löb, and was known as one of the first Talmudic authorities in...
ZECHARIAH BEN ABḲILUS (Amphikalos) – Palestinian scholar and one of the leaders of the Zealots; lived in Jerusalem at the time of the destruction of the Second Temple. According to the Talmud, the authority which he enjoyed among the rabbis of Jerusalem was the...
ZECHARIAH BEN JEHOIADA – Biblical Data: A reforming priest who lived under King Joash of Judah. He reproved the idolaters, announcing God's judgment against them; and a conspiracy was formed against him that resulted in his being stoned in the court of...
ZEEBI, ISRAEL – Prominent Talmudist; son of Benjamin Zeebi, and on his mother's side a grandson of Abraham Azulai; born at Hebron in 1651; died in 1731. Benjamin dying when Israel was but four years old, the latter was educated by his mother;...
ẒEMAḤ, JACOB BEN ḤAYYIM – Portuguese cabalist and physician; died at Jerusalem in the second half of the seventeenth century. He received a medical training in his native country as a Marano, but fled about 1619 to Safed and devoted himself to the Talmud...
ZERA'IM – The first order of the Mishnah, containing eleven treatises: Berakot, Pe'ah, Demai, Kil'ayim, Shebi'it, Terumot, Ma'aserot, Ma'aser Sheni, Ḥallah, 'Orlah, and Bikkurim. With the exception of the first, all these treatises, as is...
ZERIKA – Palestinian amora of the fourth century; a pupil of Eleazar, whose halakic maxims he transmitted (Soṭah 4b; Zeb. 93b; Men. 7b, 86b), and of Ammi (see Ḥul. 46a). He was a colleague of Abba, with whom he decided the controversy of...
ZUPH – 1. A Levite, and one of the ancestors of the prophet Samuel (I Sam. i. 1); in the parallel passage, I Chron. vi. 11 (A. V. 26), he is called Zophai.2. A country, perhaps so called because it was inhabited by the family of Zuph...
ZURIEL, MOSES BEN SAMUEL – Mathematician of the seventeenth century; author of "Meḥaddesh Ḥodashim" (Venice, 1653), a calendar for 5414-34 (= 1654-74).Bibliography: Steinschneider, in Monatsschrift, xlix. 495.E. C. M. Sel.