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The unedited full-text of the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia
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GAI, SOLOMON – Italian scholar and Hebraist; born at Mantua 1600; died there Aug., 1638. Gai is chiefly known as the correspondent and friendof Johannes Buxtorf the Younger. In a letter which he wrote to Buxtorf from Mantua (Nov. 6, 1637), Gai...
GAMA, GASPARD DA – German-Jewish mariner of the fifteenth century. According to his own story, Gaspard da Gama was born in Posen, and while still young had to leave the country (1456) on account of oppression. He followed his family to Jerusalem,...
GAON – In Babylon: The title of "gaon," probably an abbreviation of (Ps. xlvii. 5), was given to the heads of the two Babylonian academies of Sura and Pumbedita, though it did not displace the title of "rosh yeshibah"(Aramaic, "resh...
GAON – In Babylon: The title of "gaon," probably an abbreviation of (Ps. xlvii. 5), was given to the heads of the two Babylonian academies of Sura and Pumbedita, though it did not displace the title of "rosh yeshibah"(Aramaic, "resh...
GARMU, BET – A family of skilled bakers employed in the Temple at Jerusalem as bakers of the showbread (Ex. xxv. 30). They kept secret their method of baking. Fearing the family might die out and the secret perish with them, the chiefs of...
GASTFREUND, ISAAC – Galician rabbinical scholar; born about 1845; died in Vienna after 1880. He was the author of "Toledot Rabbi 'Aḳibah," a biography of the tanna Akiba b. Joseph (Lemberg, 1871; see "Ha-Shaḥar," ii. 399-400), and of the German...
GENERATION, LENGTH OF – The number of years that elapse before the children of one set of human beings arrive at a marriageable age. This number has been defined to be equal to the average male age at marriage, plus one year before child-bearing...
GENNESARET, LAKE OF – Biblical Data: A lake which takes its name ("Gennesaret" or "Gennesar"; I Macc. xi. 67; Luke v. 1; and in Josephus) from the small fruitful plain which lies on its western side (Matt. xiv. 34; Mark vi. 53), the present...
GENTILE – Meaning of the Term. A word of Latin origin (from "gens"; "gentilis"), designating a people not Jewish, commonly applied to non-Jews. The term is said (but falsely so) to imply inferiority and to express contempt. If used at all...
GENTILE – Meaning of the Term. A word of Latin origin (from "gens"; "gentilis"), designating a people not Jewish, commonly applied to non-Jews. The term is said (but falsely so) to imply inferiority and to express contempt. If used at all...
GERMANY – Country of central Europe. The date of the first settlement of Jews in the regions called by the Romans "Germania Superior," "Germania Inferior," and "Germania Magna," and which, on the whole, are included in the present German...
GESENIUS, HEINRICH FRIEDRICH WILHELM – Christian Hebraist and Orientalist; born at Nordhausen Feb. 3, 1786; died Oct. 23, 1842. At first devoting his attention to classical studies, he became a teacher at Heiligenstadt in 1809, but in the following year was appointed...
GILYONIM – Term used by the scribes flourishing between 100 and 135 to denote the Gospels. The designation as used by them did not imply any mockery; R. Meïr, who flourished after 135, a descendant of Greek proselytes, was the first to...
GIṬṬIN – Name of a treatise of the Mishnah and of the Tosefta, elaborated in the Palestinian and in the Babylonian Gemaras. It belongs to the third order, "Nashim" (Women), but occupies different places in the different compilations....
GLOGAU – Town in Prussian Silesia, Germany, with a population of 20,529, including 863 Jews. Jews were living there as early as the eleventh century, their quarters being near the Breslauer Thor, in the vicinity of the present...
GÖDING – Town of Moravia, Austria; it has a population of about 10,000 (1900), of whom over 1,000 are Jews. The Jewish community there is one of the oldest in the province. As appears from the records of the old ḥebra ḳaddisha of Göding,...
GODLINESS – The quality of being godly, i.e., godlike, manifested in character and conduct expressive of the conscious recognition and realization of man's divine origin and destiny, and in the discharge of the duties therein involved....
GO'EL – Next of kin, and, hence, redeemer. Owing to the solidarity of the family and the clan in ancient Israel, any duty which a man could not perform by himself had to be taken up by his next of kin. Any rights possessed by a man...
GOLEM – Embryo. This word occurs only once in the Bible, in Ps. cxxxix. 16, where it means "embryo." In tradition everything that is in a state of incompletion, everything not fully formed, as a needle without the eye, is designated as...
GOLGOTHA – Locality mentioned in the New Testament as the scene of Jesus' execution (Matt. xxvii. 33 and parallels). The name is an Aramaic emphatic state, and corresponds to the Hebrew . In the Greek transliteration of the Gospels the "l"...
GOLIATH – A Philistine giant of Gath (I Sam. xvii. 4). The name "Goliath" is probably connected with the Assyro-Babylonian "Guzali" = "running, ravaging spirits," "destroyers" (Jastrow, "Religion of Assyria and Babylon," p. 500;...
GOVERNMENT – Biblical Data: The only kind of political institution extant among the Israelites before the time of the Kings was the division into tribes, according to tradition twelve in number corresponding to the sons of Jacob, who were...
GREETING, FORMS OF – Fixed modes of address on meeting acquaintances. With the ancient Hebrews the form of greeting depended upon the relationship of the persons. It expressed interest and sympathy, love and affection, or reverence and honor. It...
GROTIUS, HUGO (HUIG VAN GROOT) – Dutch Christian diplomat, theologian, and scholar; born at Delft, Holland, April 10, 1583; died at Rostock, Germany, Aug. 28, 1645. In the religious combat between the Gomarists and Arminians Grotius was a follower of Arminius....
GUGGENHEIM, MEYER – American merchant and mining magnate; born in Langenau, Switzerland, 1828. In 1847 he went to America with his father, who settled at Philadelphia; there Guggenheim began business life in the humblest way, dealing, as a...