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Executive Committee of the Editorial Board.,

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GUGGENHEIMER, RANDOLPH – American lawyer; born at Lynchburg, Va., July 20, 1846. His family originally settled in Virginia, where his father was engaged in the cultivation of tobacco. Guggenheimer removed to New York city in 1865, and entered the law...
GÜNZBURG – Family which originated in the town of GÜNZBURG. It is believed that the family went thither from the city of Ulm, Württemberg, and that for this reason the best-known progenitor of the family and some of his immediate...
HA-ASIF – Hebrew year-book, edited and published by Nahum Sokolow in Warsaw. Its first volume (5645) appeared in 1884; it continued to appear regularly every year until 1889, when the fifth volume (5649) came out at the end instead of at...
HAGAR – Biblical Data: Egyptian handmaid of Sarah, and mother of Ishmael. According to one narrative, Sarah, having no children, requested Abraham to take Hagar as concubine, so that she might adopt her children (comp. Gen. xxx. 3,...
HAGGIAH – Levite of the family of Merari; son of Shimea and father of Asaiah (I Chron. vi. 15 [A. V. 30]). In the Septuagint the name is given 'Aγγία and 'Aμα and 'ναια.E. C. B. P.
HAGGITES – Tribal name of the descendants of Haggi, second son of Gad (Num. xxvi. 15); given "Agitæ" in the Vulgate, and 'Aγγει in the Septuagint.E. C. B. P.
HAGIA – Servant of Solomon (I Esd. v. 34), whose children returned from the Captivity with Zerubbabel. Ezra ii. 57 and Neh. vii. 59 give "the children of Hattil," though this is probably an error. The Septuagint rendering in Neh. vii....
HAI BEN DAVID – Dayyan, and later gaon in Pumbedita from 890 to 897. He is mentioned in Isaac ibn Ghayyat's "Halakot," in connection with the curious Bagdad custom of reciting the "'Abodah" on the morning of the Day of Atonement, which custom...
HAI BEN NAHSHON – Gaon of Sura (889-896) and president of the school of Nehardea. He was, according to a manuscript in the Vatican Library, the author of opinions on many Talmudical tractates. He protested against reciting "Kol Nidre" (Rosh, on...
HAI BEN SHERIRA – Gaon of Pumbedita; born in 939; died March 28, 1038. He received his Talmudic education from his father, Sherira, and in early life acted as his assistant in teaching (Schechter, "Saadyana," p. 118). In his forty-fourth year he...
HA-KARMEL – Hebrew periodical, edited and published by Samuel Joseph Fuenn in Wilna. It was founded in 1860 as a weekly, and was continued as such (with the interruptions usual in the case of all Jewish periodical publications in Russia)...
ḤALAFTA – Scholar of the first and second centuries (second tannaitic generation), always cited without patronymic or cognomen; his descent is traced back to Jonadab the Rechabite (Yer. Ta'an. iv. 68a; Gen. R. xcviii. 4). He was a senior...
ḤALAFTA OF HUNA (HUGA, HEWAH, ḤEFA) – Palestinian amora of the third century; senior of R. Johanan. The latter communicates to Ḥalafta's sons a halakah in their father's name (Giṭ. 86b; Yer. Giṭ. ix. 50b).Bibliography: Frankel, Mebo, 85a.E. C. S. M....
ḤALAFTA (ḤILFAI) B. ḲARUYA, ABBA – 1. Tanna of the second century, contemporary of Gamaliel II. Gamaliel once visited him at Ḳaruya (Kiryava; see Neubauer, "G. T." p. 277), and solicited his prayers; whereupon Ḥalafta pronounced over him the blessing of Psalm xx....
ḤALAFTA OF KEFAR HANANIAH, R – Tanna of the second century; junior of R. Meïr, in whose name he transmits the legal maxim: When the condition is expressed before an obligation depending on it, the condition is valid; but when the obligation precedes the...
HALAKOT – The body of religious law which constitutes one of the three main divisions of Jewish oral tradition. Later, the singular form "halakah" was generally adopted, even in reference to a whole collection of halakot, just as...
ḤALALAH – The female issue of a priest's connection with a divorced woman or widow, a connection regarded as illegal. According to the Biblical law, a priest ("kohen") could not marry a harlot, or one "profaned" ("ḥalalah"), or a divorced...
ḤALILAH – Biblical term denoting "far be it [from me, thee, etc.]." In Talmudic literature it has two distinct meanings, derived from the two meanings of the root "ḥalal" (to profane; pollute). In some instances its signification is...
ḤALIẒAH – The Ḥaliẓah Shoe.(After Bodensehatz, 1748)The ceremony of the taking off of a brother-in-law's shoe by the widow of a brother who has died childless, through which ceremony he is released from the obligation of marrying her, and...
ḤALLAH – The priest's share of the dough. The Biblical law in the case of ḥallah (Num. xv. 17-21; comp. Neh. x. 38), as in the case of the heave-offering ("terumah"; Num. xviii. 11), is indefinite. It enjoins the separation of the ḥallah...
ḤAMA B. ḤANINA – Palestinian amora of the third century; contemporary of R. Johanan (Shab. 147b). Like his father, Ḥanina b. Ḥama, he directed a school at Sepphoris (Yer. Sanh. x. 28a), and was well known in the circles of the halakists (comp....
HAMNUNA I. – Babylonian amora of the third century; senior to Joseph b. Ḥiyya (Ket. 50b; Tosef., Ket. s.v. ). He was a disciple of Rab (Abba Arika), from whom he received instruction not only in the Halakah (B. Ḳ. 106a), but also in ethics...
HAMNUNA II. – Babylonian amora of the third and fourth centuries; in the Babylonian Talmud sometimes referred to as Hamnuna Saba ("the elder"), to distinguish him from a younger Hamnuna. He was a native of Harpania (Hipparenum; Neubauer, "G....
HAMNUNA OF BABYLONIA – Teacher of the Bible; junior of Ḥanina b. Ḥama and senior of Jeremiah b. Abba, both of whom he consulted on an exegetical question (Yer. B. B. vii. 15c; comp. Yer. Ta'an. iv. 68a; Eccl. R. vii. 7). He was the innocent cause of...
HAMNUNA ZUṬA – Babylonian amora of the fourth century; junior and contemporary of Hamnuna II. (hence his cognomen "Zuṭa" ). Hamnuna II. had composed a penitential prayer beginning "My God! Before I was formed I was worthless" (see Confession)....