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The unedited full-text of the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia
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LEON, THOMAS COOPER DE – Lecturer, journalist, author, and playwright; brother of Edwin de Leon; born at Columbia, S. C., 1839. He served in the Confederate army from 1861 to 1865, and after the Civil war edited "The Mobile Register" (1877), and "The...
MACHIR – A Babylonian scholar who settled in Narbonne, France, at the end of the eighth century and whose descendants were for many generations the leaders of that important community. According to a tradition preserved by Abraham ibn...
MACHIR BEN ABBA MARI – Author of a work entitled "Yalḥuṭ ha-Makiri," but about whom not even the country or the period in which he lived is known. Steinschneider ("Jewish Literature," p. 143) supposes that Machir lived in Provence; but the question of...
MAḤOZA – Babylonian city on the Tigris, three parasangs south of Ctesiphon. Near it was the citadel of Koke ( , Χώχη), which was regarded as a part of Maḥoza. Owing to its proximity to the royal canal, Nehar Malka, it was called also...
MANNA – Biblical Data: The miraculously supplied food on which the Israelites subsisted in the wilderness. Its name is said to have originated in the question ("What is it?" Ex. xvi. 15, R. V.; comp. Rashi ad loc.), asked by the...
MANNA – Biblical Data: The miraculously supplied food on which the Israelites subsisted in the wilderness. Its name is said to have originated in the question ("What is it?" Ex. xvi. 15, R. V.; comp. Rashi ad loc.), asked by the...
MARGOLIOTH – Polish family of Talmudic scholars that traces its descent from Rashi, on the one side, and from the families of Shor and Samuel Edels on the other. The first Margolioth known was Samuel, dayyan at Posen about 1550; one of his...
MARGOLIOTH – Polish family of Talmudic scholars that traces its descent from Rashi, on the one side, and from the families of Shor and Samuel Edels on the other. The first Margolioth known was Samuel, dayyan at Posen about 1550; one of his...
MARGOLIOTH – Polish family of Talmudic scholars that traces its descent from Rashi, on the one side, and from the families of Shor and Samuel Edels on the other. The first Margolioth known was Samuel, dayyan at Posen about 1550; one of his...
MARI BEN DIMI – Second gaon of Pumbedita. When the Jewish scholars were compelled to leave the Babylonian academies, Mari, with others, went to Firuz-Shabur and there established a new academy which became associated with his name. After the...
MARIX, ADOLPH – American naval commander; born Apr. 24, 1848, in Saxony. He went to America while still a boy, and in 1864 entered the United States Naval Academy at Annapolis, Md., graduating in 1868. In 1869 he was promoted to the rank of...
MATALON, JACOB BEN SOLOMON – Turkish rabbinical scholar; lived at Salonica in the sixteenth century. According to De Rossi ("Dizionario," i. 135) the name "Matalon" is the Hebrew equivalent of "one of Toulon," but Zunz (see Steinschneider, "Cat. Bodl." col....
MATTITHIAH B. HERESH – Roman tanna of the second century; born in Judea; probably a pupil of R. Ishmael, and certainly a contemporary and friend of his pupils R. Josiah and R. Jonathan. After his ordination Mattithiah went to Rome, apparently on...
MATTITHIAH B. ISAAC OF CHINON – French scholar of the end of the thirteenth century. He was a pupil of R. Perez of Corbeil and a contemporary of Mordecai b. Hillel, martyred at Nuremberg in 1298. He is sometimes wrongly identified with Mattithiah, the teacher...
MATTITHIAH OF PARIS – Head of the Talmudic school of Paris in the eleventh century and doubtless identical with Mattithiah b. Moses, one of Rashi's pupils. He is occasionally called Mattithiah the Great. He corresponded with Samuel. b. Meïr...
MAYO, RAPHAEL ISAAC BEN AARON – Talmudical scholar of Smyrna; died in 1810. He was the author of the following works: "Sefer Shorashe ha-Yam," commentary on the Yad ha-Ḥazaḳah (3 vols., Salonica, 1806-15); "Darke ha-Yam," containing homilies and funeral...
MEGILLAT YUḤASIN – A lost work to which several references are made in the Talmud and Mishnah. In Yeb. 49b Ben 'Azzai, in support of a point in law, says: "I found a 'Megillat Yuḥasin' in Jerusalem wherein it was written that . . . is a bastard...
MENAHEM BEN JOSEPH OF TROYES – Liturgical compiler; lived at Troyes in the thirteenth century, succeeding his father, Joseph Ḥazzan ben Judah, as ḥazzan. The Jewish liturgy is indebted to him for collecting the order of prayers which was used in the community...
MENAHEM MENDEL BEN BARUCH BENDET – Lithuanian Talmudist of the eighteenth century; born at Shklov; died in Palestine. He was a pupil of Elijah of Wilna, whose works he later helped to edit and publish. Elijah Gaon's commentaries on Proverbs, on the Shulḥan 'Aruk...
MENAHEM OF TIKTIN (MaHaRaM TIKTIN; MENAHEM DAVID BEN ISAAC) – Polish rabbi and author of the sixteenth century; pupil of Moses Isserles. Menahem occupied himself with emending and annotating various texts; his notes on the halakot of Isaac Alfasi and Mordecai b. Hillel have been published...
MENAHEM BEN ẒEBI – German rabbi; died at Posen(?) in 1724. He was the pupil of R. Heschel and of Aaron Samuel Kaidanover (author of "Birkat ha-Zebaḥ"). He wrote: "Ẓinẓenet Menaḥem" (Berlin, 1719), an elucidation of difficult passages in the...
MESHULLAM BEN DAVID – German tosafist of the twelfth or of the first half of the thirteenth century. He was the son of the tosafist and liturgist David ben Kalonymus of Münzenburg, and he corresponded with R. Baruch ("Mordekai," Ket.ii. 149), with...
MESHULLAM BEN ISRAEL – Talmudic scholar of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries; author of "Mar'eh Meḳom ha-Dinim" (Cracow, 1647), an alphabetical index to the Shulḥan 'Aruk. Fürst ("Bibl. Jud." ii. 369) records that he was known also as "Phoebus,"...
MIDRASHIM, SMALLER – A number of midrashim exist which are smaller in size, and generally later in date, than those dealt with in the articles Midrash Haggadah and Midrash Halakah. The chief of these are:1. Midrash Abkir: This midrash, the extant...
MIGRATION – Removal from one region to another. Ever since the Exile, Jews have been forced to wander from country to country, and a full history of their migrations would be almost identical with a complete history of that people.In the...