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Paul Wendland, Ph.D.

Berlin, Germany; Coeditor of "Philonis Opera."

Contributions:
AARON BEN ASHER OF KARLIN (Rabbi Aaron II. of Karlin) – One of the most famous rabbis of the Ḥasidim in northwestern Russia; born in 1802; died June 23, 1872. He had an immense number of followers, and many thousands of them used to visit him annually, about the time of the Jewish...
AARON BEN JACOB OF KARLIN – Known among the Ḥasidim as Rabbi Aaron the Great, orsimply as the "Preacher" or "Censor"; born in 1738; died 1771. He was one of the early great rabbis of the sect who helped the rapid spread of Ḥasidism in eastern Europe, and...
ABULAFIA, ABRAHAM BEN SAMUEL – One of the earliest cabalists; born 1240 at Saragossa, in Aragon; died some time after 1291. Very early in life he was taken by his parents to Tudela, in Navarre, where his aged father carefully instructed him in the Bible and...
AGA, BENJAMIN – Leader of the Karaites of the Crimea, who died in 1824. He was the royal treasurer of Selim Ghyrey Khan, the last Tatar ruler of the Crimea, and therefore is called in Karaite literature Ha-Neeman ("the Trusted")—an appellation...
AḤA OF IRAK – A Babylonian, who is alleged to have invented the Assyrian or Babylonian (superlinear) system of vowel-points and accents ( ). He is known only from Karaite sources, which are somewhat unreliable. Pinsker ("LiḲḲuṭe ḳadmoniyot")...
ALEXANDRIAN PHILOSOPHY – While there were many earlier settlements of Jewish immigrants in Egypt, it was reserved for King Ptolemy I. to establish a large Jewish colony in Alexandria, either by compulsory deportation or by the encouragement of voluntary...
ALSARI, JACOB – Teacher of Hebrew and grammarian, who for eighteen years lectured in Hebrew in Zerkowo, Prussian Poland, near the Russian frontier. His son Joseph, born in Zerkowo in 1805, claims to have translated the family name into German,...
ARISTEAS, THE HISTORIAN – Writer on Jewish history mentioned in Eusebius, "Præp. Ev." ix. 25, who quotes from Alexander Polyhistor's collection of fragments, a passage from a work of Aristeas (in many manuscripts "Aristaios"), entitled Περὶ Ιουδαίων,...
ARISTEAS, LETTER OF – In the guise of a letter to a brother Philokrates, "Aristeas" writes:Contents of the Letter. "By the advice of Demetrius Phalereus, chief librarian of Ptolemy Philadelphus, the king decided to include in his library a...
ARISTOBULUS OF PANEAS – Alexandrian Peripatetic philosopher; lived in the third or second century B.C. The period of his life is doubtful, Anatolius (270) placing him in the time of Ptolemy Philadelphus (third century B.C.), Gercke in the time of...