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The unedited full-text of the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia
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Isidore Singer, Ph.D.

MANAGING EDITOR, New York City.

Contributions:
BLOCH, SAMSON (SIMSON) B. ISAAC HA-LEVI – Galician author; born in Kulikow, near Lemberg, 1782; died there Oct. 7, 1845. He received the usual Talmudical education, but was also sufficiently instructed in the Bible and Hebrew grammar, things uncommon in the Galician...
BLOSZ, KARL – German painter; born at Mannheim Nov. 24, 1860. He studied at the art school in Carlsruhe from 1880 to 1883, and was a pupil of K. Hoff and of Von Lindenschmid of the Munich Academy from 1883 to 1887. Since 1887 he has worked...
BLOWITZ, HENRI GEORGES STEPHAN ADOLPHE OPPER DE – Special correspondent at Paris of the London "Times"; born at Blowitz, Bohemia, Dec. 28, 1825; died in Paris Jan. 18, 1903. At the age of sixteen he went to France, where he was appointed professor of German at the Lycée, Tours....
BLÜCHER, EPHRAIM ISRAEL – Austrian rabbi and author; born Oct. 2, 1813, at Glocksdorf, Moravia; died at Budapest April 6, 1882. For some years he was tutor in Hebrew at the University of Lemberg; then officiated as rabbi at Osviecin, Galicia, and Kosten,...
BLUM, ABRAHAM – French major; born in 1823; died at Boulogne, France, in 1894. He distinguished himself in the Crimean war in 1854, having been wounded in the shoulder, and received from the sultan the Order of Medidje. Upon his return to...
BLUM, ERNEST – French dramatist; born in Paris Aug. 15, 1836. The son of an actor, he began at an early age to work for the theater. At eighteen he produced his first piece, for the Variétés, entitled "Femme Qui Mord." His subsequent works for...
BLUM, ISAAC AUGUST – French mathematician; born at Paris in 1831; died there Jan. 5, 1877. He entered in 1831 the Ecole Polytechnique and was graduated lieutenant of marine, but resigned in 1833 and devoted himself to teaching. Involved in the...
BLUM, JULIUS – Austro-Egyptian financier; born at Budapest, Hungary, in 1843. In 1869 he became director of the Austro-Egyptian bank at Alexandria; in 1877 he was appointed state secretary in the Egyptian Ministry of Finance, by the ḳhedive;...
BLUMENFELD, ARON WOLFF – German composer; born at Kurnik, Posen, Feb. 29, 1828. In 1846 he went to Berlin, where he studied with Rungenhagen, and afterward established himself as a teacher and composer. His more important works are an opera entitled...
BLUMENFELD, BERISH – Galician Hebraist; flourished in the first half of the nineteenth century. He was one of the wealthy Hebrew scholars of that part of Poland who contributed much to the spread of knowledge among their brethren, and whose work in...
BLUMENFELD, IGNATZ (ISAAC) – Austrian publisher and merchant; born March 25, 1812, at Brody, Galicia; died Oct. 2, 1890, at Geneva, Switzerland. He was one of the wealthy Galicians who took delight in encouraging and spreading the new Hebrew literature. He...
BLUMENSTOCK VON HALBAN, LEO – Austrian physician; born at Cracow March 11, 1838; died there Feb. 28, 1897. Educated at the gymnasium and university of his native town and at the university at Vienna, he was graduated as doctor of medicine in 1862. He engaged...
BLUMENTHAL, HEINRICH – German manufacturer and philanthropist; born at Darmstadt, Hesse, March 12, 1824; died there March 27, 1901. Even as a boy his love for technical work was noticeable, in consequence of which his father sent him to the technical...
BLUMENTHAL, OSKAR – German author and playwright; born at Berlin March 13, 1852. He was educated at the gymnasium and the university of his native town, and at the university at Leipsic, where, in 1872, he received the degree of doctor of...
BOAS, EDUARD – German author and traveler; born at Landsberg-on-the-Warthe Jan. 1, 1815; died there June, 1853. He was destined for a commercial career by his parents; and, for the purpose of acquiring a knowledge of international trade...
BOAS, IMAR – German physician and medical author; born at Exin, province of Posen, Prussia, March 28, 1858. After having completed his studies at the gymnasium, he attended the medical courses at the universities of Berlin, Halle, and...
BOCK, ALFRED – German novelist; born at Giessen, Hesse-Darmstadt, Oct. 14, 1859. He received his education at the gymnasium and the university of his native town, and traveled through Denmark, Italy, Turkey, and Greece. He now (1902) lives in...
BOCK, M. H. – German educator; born at Magdeburg, 1784; died at Leipsic April 10, 1816, while on a journey. He was one of the ablest modern Jewish teachers in Germany at the beginning of the nineteenth century; and the fashionable private...
BODEK, JACOB, OF LEMBERG – Galician Hebraist; died at Lemberg 1856. He published "Ha-Ro'eh v-Mebaḳḳer Sifre Meḥabre Zemanenu" (Spectator and Critic of Contemporary Works), which contains long articles from his own pen, from that of his brother-in-law, A....
BODENHEIMER, LEVI – Consistorial rabbi at Krefeld, in the Rhine province; born Dec. 13, 1807, at Carlsruhe; died Aug. 25, 1867, at Krefeld. He occupied the position of rabbi at Hildesheim in 1837. Bodenheimer published: (1) "Das Testament Unter...
BODENSTEIN, JULIUS – German landscape-painter; born in Berlin Aug. 4, 1847. He studied at the Berlin Academy under Schütze and Hermann Schnee, and in 1873 went to Munich, where he became a pupil of Ad. Lier. He is prominent as a painter of subjects...
BOGNAR, FREDERIKE – German actress; born at Gotha Feb. 16, 1840. Her father was a singer, and Frederike was destined for a musical career. After appearing a few times in children's parts in Budapest, she was sent to Munich to study music under Mme....
BÖHM, MOSES – German physician; flourished in the middle of the eighteenth century. In 1740 he was engaged by the Jewish community of Halberstadt to attend to the medical needs of its poor members; and his salary, 175 thalers per annum, was...
BOLAFFIO, LEONE – Italian jurist; born at Padua July 5, 1848. He was educated at Padua; attended the public schools, the Talmudic college—where S. D. Luzzatto was his teacher—and the University of Padua. Bolaffio afterward practised law at Venice...
BOLAFFIO, LUIGI FILIPPO – Italian journalist and publisher; born in Venice 1846, died at Milan 1901. While he was still a youth his parents moved to Genoa, and there Bolaffio founded "La Favilla," a literary magazine. He returned to Venice in 1866 and...