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The unedited full-text of the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia
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Isidore Singer, Ph.D.

MANAGING EDITOR, New York City.

Contributions:
BONDI, ELIJAH BEN SELIG – Austrian preacher; born at Prague at the end of the eighteenth century; died there about 1860. He studied Talmud at Presburg under the direction of Meshullam Tismenitz, and later at Alt-Ofen with Moses Münz. In 1826 he was...
BORCHARD, MARC – German physician and author; born in Mecklenburg, 1808; died at Paris June 21, 1872. He graduated as M. D. at Halle, later going to France, where he became hospital and forensic physician at Bordeaux. In that city he was a...
BORCHARDT, BRUNO – German physicist and author; born at Bromberg Nov. 17, 1859. Educated at Berlin, where he graduated as Ph.D., he was appointed high-school teacher; but on account of his socialistic convictions was compelled to resign his...
BORCHARDT, FELIX – German painter; born in Berlin March 7, 1857; studied at the Berlin Academy and with Max Michael; traveled extensively in Italy, France, Holland, and Spain, remaining five years in Spain. He is now (1902) a resident of Dresden...
BORCHARDT, KARL WILHELM – German mathematician; born Feb. 22, 1817, at Berlin; died there June 27, 1880. He studied from 1839 to 1843 at Königsberg, where Jacobi exerted a great influence on him. He passed the winter of 1846-47 at Paris, where he...
BORIS, MOSES – French colonel; born in the department of Meurthe in 1808; died in Paris June 13, 1884. At the age of twenty-six he entered the military school of Saint-Cyr, and upon his graduation was appointed tutor, gradually rising to the...
BORN, GUSTAV JACOB – German histologist and medical author; born at Kempen, province of Posen, Prussia, April 22, 1851. He received his education first at the gymnasium of Görlitz, Prussian Silesia—where his father practised as a physician and held...
BÖRNE, KARL LUDWIG – German political and literary writer; born May 6, 1786, at Frankfort-on-the-Main; died in Paris Feb. 12, 1837. The family name was Baruch, and he received the name of Loeb, both of which he afterward changed. Both his...
BORNSTEIN, ARTHUR – German author; born at Breslau March 23, 1867; studied at Breslau, Berlin, and Bern; and passed the state examination in Berlin in 1888. He adopted the profession of dental surgery, but devoted himself as well to literature. A...
BORNSTEIN, PAUL – German author; born in Berlin April 8, 1868; educated in and graduated from the university in that city, receiving the degree of doctor of philosophy. He has since lived in the German capital. His first published work was the...
BOSKOVITZ, WOLF – The first rabbi of the congregation of Budapest; died 1818. In 1787 the Jewish community at Pest was sufficiently large to rent a hall where divine services could be held, though all religious questions were at this time still...
BRAHM, OTTO (Abrahamsohn) – German dramatic critic and manager; born in Hamburg Feb. 5, 1856. He studied philosophy, German philology, and the history of art, at Berlin, Heidelberg, and Strasburg, and was a pupil of Wilhelm Scherer, the historian of...
BRAILOV – Town in the district of Vinitza, government of Podolia. The population at the census of 1897 was 8,972, including 3,924 Jews. Of the latter a few are engaged in agriculture, the pursuit of which was nearly closed to them by the...
BRANDEIS, FREDERICK – Musician; born at Vienna July 5, 1832; died at New York May 14, 1899. He studied at the University of Vienna, and received instruction in the piano from Fischhof, Czerny, and Pyrkert, and in composition from Rufinatscha. During...
BRANDES, CARL EDUARD COHEN – Danish author and politician; born at Copenhagen, Oct. 21, 1847; brother of George Brandes. At the age of eighteen he entered the university of his native city, and at first diligently followed courses in Oriental and...
BRANDES, ERNST IMMANUEL COHEN – Danish economist; born at Copenhagen Feb. 1, 1844; died there Aug. 6, 1892. He was a brother of the critic Georg Brandes and of the author Eduard Brandes. His avocation was that of banker, but he retired soon from that pursuit...
BRANDES, GEORG MORRIS COHEN – The Martensen-Nielsen-Bröchner Controversy. Danish author and critic; born in Copenhagen, Denmark, Feb. 4, 1842. He graduated in 1859, and for a short time studied law, but soon determined to devote his life to literature and...
BRANDES, LUDVIG ISRAEL – Danish physician; born in Copenhagen Oct. 26, 1821; diedthere Sept. 17, 1894. In 1839 he entered the University of Copenhagen, and was graduated in medicine in 1845. After having spent some time in foreign countries, he studied...
BRANDÈS, MARTHE (Marthe-Joséphine Brunschwig) – French actress; born in Paris Jan. 31, 1862. She first studied design, sculpture, and music, and, finally, the drama. Successful in private theatricals, she entered the Paris Conservatoire and studied under Gustave Worms. In...
BRANDON, JACOB EMILE ÉDOUARD – French genre painter; born at Paris July 3, 1831. A pupil of Picot, Montfort, and Corot, he entered the Ecole des Beaux Arts in that city April 5, 1849. Upon his graduation from that institution he at once assiduously devoted...
BRANDON, JULES BENJAMIN – French officer and scion of an ancient Sephardic family that went to France from Spain after the exodus of 1492; born Sept. 24, 1833, at Paris; died May 22, 1871. After studying at the Collège St. Barbe, he went to the Ecole...
BRANDSTÄDTER, MORDECAI DAVID – Galician novelist; born Feb. 14, 1844, in Brzesko, Galicia. He received a good Talmudical education, and after his marriage (at the early age of fourteen) settled in the home of his wife's parents in Tarnow, pursuing his...
BRANN, MARCUS – German historian; born in Rawitsch July 9, 1849; son of Rabbi Solomon Brann. He studied at the University of Breslau, attending at the same time the rabbinical seminary of that city, and was graduated from the university in 1873...
BRANN, SOLOMON – German rabbi; born in Rawitsch, Nov. 3, 1814. He attended for several years the yeshibah in Lissa, and continued his studies in the Berlin University. In 1839 he was elected a member of the rabbinical board of his native city,...
BRASCH, MORITZ – German philosopher and litterateur; born at Zempelburg, West Prussia, Aug. 18, 1843; died at Leipzig Sept. 14, 1895. He was educated at the universities of Berlin, Greifswald, and Jena, settling at the first-mentioned place on...