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The unedited full-text of the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia
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Isidore Singer, Ph.D.

MANAGING EDITOR, New York City.

Contributions:
BRANDES, ERNST IMMANUEL COHEN – Danish economist; born at Copenhagen Feb. 1, 1844; died there Aug. 6, 1892. He was a brother of the critic Georg Brandes and of the author Eduard Brandes. His avocation was that of banker, but he retired soon from that pursuit...
BRANDES, GEORG MORRIS COHEN – The Martensen-Nielsen-Bröchner Controversy. Danish author and critic; born in Copenhagen, Denmark, Feb. 4, 1842. He graduated in 1859, and for a short time studied law, but soon determined to devote his life to literature and...
BRAUN, SOLOMON – French lieutenant of artillery; born at Paris, 1868; died in Togbao, Sudan, in 1899. His father, a poor pedler, observing Solomon's capacity for learning, made the greatest sacrifices to give him a good education. Solomon...
BRANDES, LUDVIG ISRAEL – Danish physician; born in Copenhagen Oct. 26, 1821; diedthere Sept. 17, 1894. In 1839 he entered the University of Copenhagen, and was graduated in medicine in 1845. After having spent some time in foreign countries, he studied...
BRANDÈS, MARTHE (Marthe-Joséphine Brunschwig) – French actress; born in Paris Jan. 31, 1862. She first studied design, sculpture, and music, and, finally, the drama. Successful in private theatricals, she entered the Paris Conservatoire and studied under Gustave Worms. In...
BRANDON, JACOB EMILE ÉDOUARD – French genre painter; born at Paris July 3, 1831. A pupil of Picot, Montfort, and Corot, he entered the Ecole des Beaux Arts in that city April 5, 1849. Upon his graduation from that institution he at once assiduously devoted...
BRANDON, JULES BENJAMIN – French officer and scion of an ancient Sephardic family that went to France from Spain after the exodus of 1492; born Sept. 24, 1833, at Paris; died May 22, 1871. After studying at the Collège St. Barbe, he went to the Ecole...
BRANDSTÄDTER, MORDECAI DAVID – Galician novelist; born Feb. 14, 1844, in Brzesko, Galicia. He received a good Talmudical education, and after his marriage (at the early age of fourteen) settled in the home of his wife's parents in Tarnow, pursuing his...
BRANN, MARCUS – German historian; born in Rawitsch July 9, 1849; son of Rabbi Solomon Brann. He studied at the University of Breslau, attending at the same time the rabbinical seminary of that city, and was graduated from the university in 1873...
BRANN, SOLOMON – German rabbi; born in Rawitsch, Nov. 3, 1814. He attended for several years the yeshibah in Lissa, and continued his studies in the Berlin University. In 1839 he was elected a member of the rabbinical board of his native city,...
BRASCH, MORITZ – German philosopher and litterateur; born at Zempelburg, West Prussia, Aug. 18, 1843; died at Leipzig Sept. 14, 1895. He was educated at the universities of Berlin, Greifswald, and Jena, settling at the first-mentioned place on...
BRAUN, JOSEF – Austrian journalist, dramatist, and librettist; born at Budapest, May 5, 1840. Braun was educated for the profession of medicine at the University of Vienna, but abandoned his medical studies in 1860 to join the editorial staff...
BRECHER, ADOLPH – Austrian physician; born at Prossnitz, Moravia, in 1831; died at Olmütz April 13, 1894. He was the son of the physician Gideon Brecher. Adolph Brecher, after attending the gymnasia at Presburg and Prague, studied in Nikolsburg...
BRECHER, GIDEON (GEDALIAH B. ELIEZER) – Austrian physician and author; born at Prossnitz, Moravia, Jan. 12, 1797; died there May 14, 1873.Brecher, who was the first Jew of Prossnitz to study for the medical or any other profession, attained the degree of master of...
BREIDENBACH, MORITZ WILHELM AUGUST – German jurist; born at Offenbach-on-the-Main Nov. 13, 1796; died at Darmstadt April 2, 1857. He first attended the gymnasium at Frankfort, and then the University of Heidelberg, from which he was graduated in 1817 as LL.D. After...
BREIDENBACH, WOLF – German court agent and champion of Jewish emancipation; born in the village of Breidenbach, Hesse-Cassel, 1751;died in Offenbach Feb. 28, 1829. He went to Frankfort-on-the-Main as a poor boy, and for a time was a baḥur, being...
BREIER, EDUARD – Austrian writer; born at Warasdin in Croatia Nov. 3, 1811; died at Zaiwitz near Znaim, Moravia, June 3, 1886. His first novel, "Der Fluch des Rabbi," published in 1840, was written in eleven days, during his furlough while an...
BREITENSTEIN, MAX – Austrian writer and translator; born at Iglau, Moravia, Nov. 10, 1855. He attended the gymnasium of his native city and the University of Vienna. In 1876 he turned to journalism and founded the weekly "Alma Mater," which he...
BRESLAUER, HERMANN – Austrian neuropath; born at Duschnik, Bohemia, Nov. 10, 1835. He was educated at the gymnasium at Pilsen and the University of Vienna, graduating from the latter as doctor of medicine in 1860. Establishing himself as a physician...
BRESLAUER, MAX – German chemist; born at Trebnitz, Prussian Silesia, June 19, 1856. He received his education at the universities of Leipsic, Heidelberg, and Breslau, graduating with the degree of doctor of philosophy. In 1880 he was appointed...
BRESLAUR, EMIL – German musician and writer on musical pedagogics; born at Kottbus May 29, 1836. He first attended the gymnasium in his native city, and later the seminary at Neuzelle. Upon his graduation from that institution he became preacher...
BRESNER, ISAAC BEN ELIJAH LEVI – Austrian educator; lived at Prague in the second half of the seventeenth century and the beginning of the eighteenth. In 1795 Bresner published at Prague, under the title "Iggeret Yiẓḥaḳ" (The Letter of Isaac), an order of...
BRESNITZ, HEINRICH – Austrian author and journalist; born at Czernowitz, Bukowina, Austria-Hungary, 1844. In 1867 he established in Vienna a periodical, "Der Osten," and in 1869 a political journal, "Der Patriot." From 1879 to 1886 he was the...
BRESSELAU, MEÏR ISRAEL – German notary and secretary of the Reform congregation of Hamburg; born 1785 (?); died in Hamburg Dec. 25, 1839. He was identified with the Reform movement in Hamburg from its beginning, and when the Orthodox party attacked the...
BRESSLAU, HARRY – German historian; born in Dannenberg, Hanover, March 22, 1848. He studied history in Göttingen from 1866 to 1869; became teacher of the real-school in Frankfort-on-the-Main; afterward occupied a similar position in Berlin, and...