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The unedited full-text of the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia
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Isidore Singer, Ph.D.

MANAGING EDITOR, New York City.

Contributions:
CAZÈS, DAVID – Moroccan educator and writer; born at Tetuan in 1851. Sent to Paris in his early youth, he was educated by the Alliance Israélite Universelle, and at the age of eighteen was commissioned to establish and direct several primary...
CERF, KARL FRIEDRICH – German theatrical manager; born at Unterreissheim-on-the-Main in 1782; died at Berlin Nov. 6, 1845. He embraced Christianity when very young, and had to support his father's family when only seventeen years old. After having...
CERFBEER, HERZ, OF MEDELSHEIM – French philanthropist; born at Bischheim, Alsace, in 1730; died at Strasburg in 1793. He was a contractor to the army, and employed his wealth and his influence with the French government in promoting the material and spiritual...
CERFBEER, MAX-THÉODORE – French officer and deputy; born at Nancy, Meurthe, Dec. 9, 1792; died Jan. 15, 1876. He entered the army at an early age, and was made an officer by Napoleon I. without having passed through the military school. In 1827 he was...
CERFBERR, ANATOLE – French journalist and author; born at Paris 1835; died at Neuilly 1896. Under various pseudonyms, among which were "Arthur Clary," "Antoine Cerlier," and "Fulgence Ridal," he contributed to numerous papers. He was an admirer of...
CERFBERR, AUGUSTE ÉDOUARD – French author; born at Epinal in 1811; died in 1858. Having completed his studies in law, Cerfberr entered the service of the government, in which he held many high positions. His last office was that of prefect and general...
CERFBERR, FRÉDÉRIC – French consul; born at Strasburg Oct. 27, 1786; died at sea Sept. 18, 1842, on a voyage from New York to France. Being fond of travel and foreign languages, he obtained (in 1809) the appointment as secretary of the imperial...
CERFBERR, MAXIMILIEN CHARLES ALPHONSE, OF MEDELSHEIM – French journalist; born at Epinal July 20, 1817; died at Paris Dec. 16, 1883. After traveling extensively in Algeria and the East, Cerfberr was attached in 1839 to the penitentiary administration in the Ministry of the Interior....
CERFBERR, SAMSON, OF MEDELSHEIM – French soldier and author; born at Strasburg about 1780; committed suicide at Paris, 1826. He led an erratic and adventurous life, wanderingover the world, changing his name and even his religion several times. At one time he is...
CHORIN, FRANZ – Hungarian deputy; grandson of Aaron Chorin; born at Arad May 11, 1842. He studied law at Arad, Budapest, and Vienna, and began practise in his native city, where he soon became vice-president of the bar association. He was...
CHRONEGK, LUDWIG – German actor; born at Brandenburg-on-the-Havel Nov. 3, 1837; died at Meiningen July 8, 1890. He was the stage-manager and "Intendanzrath" of the famous Meininger troupe established at Weimar by Duke George of Meiningen. Chronegk...
COHEN, ELIAS – Turkish physician; born in 1844. He belongs to a family many members of which have been distinguished in medicine. His early studies were completed at the Jewish communal school founded at Constantinople by the Camondo family....
CLAAR, EMIL – Austrian poet, playwright, and actor; born Oct. 7, 1842, in Lemberg. Early in life he went to Vienna with the intention of studying medicine; but, in compliance with the desire of his relatives, he adopted a commercial career....
COBLENCE, ADOLPHE – French army surgeon; born at Nancy May 11, 1812; died in Paris Sept 18, 1872. He entered the service of the army as an assistant surgeon in the military hospital at Metz in 1832; became surgeon in 1834; and subsequently was made...
RECANATI – Town in Italy, on the Musone, and in the province of Macerata; formerly included in the Pontifical States. Jews are known to have lived in Recanati as early as the thirteenth century, when R. Menahem Recanati flourished in that...
COEN – Physician-in-ordinary at the court of Prince Vassile Lupu, hospodar of Moldavia from 1634 to 1654. The dates of his birth and death, and his given name, are unknown. E. Schwarzfeld is of the opinion that Coen was a descendant of...
COEN, ACHILLE – 1. Italian soldier; born at Leghorn in 1851. He studied at the military academy of his native town, and was appointed lieutenant in the engineer corps at the age of twenty. Subsequently assigned to the sharpshooters, he was...
COEN, GIUSEPPE – Italian painter; born in Ferrara 1811; died in Venice Jan. 26, 1856. He was descended from an old and distinguished family. As a boy he evinced a predilection for music and painting, and studied art without having any particular...
COEN, GRAZIADIO VITA ANANIA – Italian, rabbi and scholar; born at Reggio nell' Emilia about 1750: died March 28, 1834. He studied under Sansone Naḥmani and Isaiah Vita Carmi. He established in his native city a school that produced several rabbis, among whom...
COEN, JOSEF DI MICHELE – One of the Jewish boys of Rome baptized under Pope Pius IX.; born 1854. In 1864 he was apprenticed to a shoemaker. Sent by his master to deliver a pair of shoes at the house of a priest, the boy was seized and dragged to the...
COEN, MOSES VITA – Banker at Ferrara, Italy, in the eighteenth century. He often transacted business with Pope Clement XIII. and with his successor, Clement XIV. On Feb. 22, 1764, Clement XIII. requested Coen to provide the papal government with...
COEN, RAFFAELO DEL FU VITALE – Austrian physician; born at Spalato, Dalmatia, Jan. 19, 1839. He was educated at the gymnasium of his native town and at the University of Vienna, whence he was graduated as doctor of medicine in 1872 whereupon he commenced to...
COHEN-TANUGI, JUDAH B. ABRAHAM – Rabbi and writer; died at Tunis about 1835, at an advanced age. He is the author of two Hebrew works, both of which contain notes on the Talmud: "Ereẓ Yehudah" (Land of Judah), Leghorn, 1797; and "Admat Yehudah (Soil of Judah),"...
CONSTANTINE – City in Algeria; capital of the department of the same name. In ancient times it was the capital of Numidia. Jews lived there as early as the first centuries of the common era, as is attested by epitaphs found in several places...
COHEN, ABRAHAM – Chief rabbi of Djerba, an island near Tunis; died in 1870. He was the author of a Hebrew poem, "Shir Ḥadash," published at Leghorn by Israel Costa and dealing with the 613 precepts of the Law; and of a Hebrew commentary on the...