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Solomon Schechter, M.A., Litt.D.

President of the Faculty of the Jewish Theological Seminary of America, New York City.

Contributions:
JOSEPH BEN SOLOMON (JOSEPH DARSHAN OF POSEN) – German preacher; born at Posen in 1601; died there in 1696. When a youth Joseph studied at Byelaya Tzerkov, Russia, where he seems to have settled, for in 1648 he was an eyewitness of the Chmielnicki massacres. Joseph succeeded...
JOSEPH BEN SOLOMON OF CARCASSONNE – French liturgical poet of the eleventh century. He wrote a Ḥanukkah "yoẓer" beginning "Odeka ki anafta," which is mentioned by Rashi in his commentary on Ezek. xxi. 18. Joseph took the material for this yoẓer from various...
JOSHUA B. ABIN – Palestinian amora of the fourth century whose name is associated chiefly with haggadot. He transmitted a haggadah of Levi and a halakah of 'Anani b. Sason. There are also extant some of his own haggadic sayings, and some...
JOSHUA B. HANANIAH – A leading tanna of the first half-century following the destruction of the Temple. He was of Levitical descent (Ma'as. Sh. v. 9), and served in the sanctuary as a member of the class of singers ('Ar. 11b). His mother intended...
JOSHUA HÖSCHEL BEN JOSEPH – Polish rabbi; born in Wilna about 1578; died at Cracow Aug. 16, 1648. In his boyhood he journeyed to Przemysl, Galicia, to study the Talmud under Rabbi Samuel ben Phoebus of Cracow. He returned to his native country, and...
JOSHUA HÖSCHEL BEN MEÏR – Rabbinical author; lived in the eighteenth century; died at Jerusalem; a contemporary of Elijah Wilna. Hewrote "Maẓmiaḥ Yeshu'ah" (Nowydwor, 1782), in two parts: the first consists of a commentary on the "Mordekai" of R....
JOSHUA HÖSCHEL BEN SAUL – Polish rabbi; died in Wilna at an advanced age Sept. 9, 1749. He was named after his grandfather, R. Höschel of Lublin, Brest-Litovsk, and Cracow (d. 1663), and is referred to in a document dated 1745 as being very old. He...
JOSHUA JOSEPH BEN DAVID HALEVI – Rabbi of Venice and Hebrew poet; lived in the seventeenth century. He composed elegies ("ḳinot") on the deaths of Samuel Aboab and Moses Zacuto (Venice, 1694), and one, entitled "Kos Tanḥumin," on the death of Moses Levi Majo,...
JOSHUA B. LEVI – Palestinian amora of the first half of the third century. He was the head of the school of Lydda in southern Palestine, and an elder contemporary of Johanan bar Nappaḥa and Simeon b. Laḳish, who presided over the school in...
JOSHUA OF SHIKNIN – Amora of the third century; known especially as a transmitter of Levi's Haggadah. He also quotes a haggadic sentence by Aḥa (Lev. R. xxxi. 5). Of his own work only a haggadic sentence, quoted by Yusta b. Shunam, is known: "The...
JUDAH – Biblical Data: The fourth son of Jacob and Leah; born in Padan-aram (Gen. xxix. 35). It is he who suggests the sale of Joseph to the Ishmaelite traders. He becomes surety for Benjamin, and prevails upon his father to let him go...
JUDAH I. – Patriarch; redactor of the Mishnah; born about 135; died about 220. He was the first of Hillel's successors to whose name the title of hereditary dignity, "ha-Nasi" (= "the prince"), was added as a permanent epithet; and...
JUDAH II. – Patriarch; son of Gamaliel III. and grandson of Judah I.; lived at Tiberias in the middle of the third century. In the sources he is called "Judah," "Judah Nesi'ah" (= "ha-Nasi"), and occasionally "Rabbi" like his grandfather;...
JUDAH III. – Patriarch; son of Gamaliel IV. and grandson of Judah II. The sources do not distinguish between Judah II. and Judah III., and, since the title "Nesi'ah" was borne by both, which of the two in any citation is meant by "Judah...
JUDAH IV. – Patriarch; son of Gamaliel V. and grandson of Hillel II. Beyond his name and the fact that he officiated during the last two decades of the fourth century, nothing is known of him. He is probably identical with the "Judah...
JUDAH BEN ABRAHAM – Pupil of Rashi; flourished at the beginning of the twelfth century. He studied under Rashi with Shemaiah (father-in-law of Rashbam), with whom he was engaged in literary work. Together they arranged the posthumous writings of...
JUDAH BEN ASHER – German Talmudist; later, rabbi of Toledo, Spain; born in western Germany June 30, 1270; died at Toledo July 4, 1349; brother of Jacob ben Asher ("Ba'al ha-Ṭurim"). These dates are deduced from the evidence furnished by Judah's...
JUDAH B. BABA – Tanna of the second century; martyred (at the age of seventy) during the persecutions under Hadrian. At that time the government forbade, among other things, the ordination of rabbis, an infraction of the law being punished by...
JUDAH BEN BARZILLAI – Spanish Talmudist of the end of the eleventh and the beginning of the twelfth century. Almost nothing is known of his life. He came of a very distinguished family, on account of which he was not seldom called "ha-Nasi" (the...
JUDAH BEN DAVID OF MELUN – French tosafist of the first half of the thirteenth century; son of the tosafist David of Melun (department of Seine-et-Marne). In Perez of Corbeil's tosafot to Baba Ḳamma (ed. Leghorn, p. 53a) he is quoted under the name "Judah...
JUDAH BEN ELIEZER – Lithuanian Talmudist and philanthropist; born at Wilna; died there March 18, 1762, having officiated as dayyan, communal secretary, and, for a short time, rabbi. Although so eminent as a Talmudist that he was consulted in the...
JUDAH BEN ENOCH – Chief rabbi and preacher of Pfersee, Bavaria; lived at the end of the seventeenth century. His sermons for the festivals of Passover, Pentecost, and Tabernacles were published with those of his father, Enoch ben Abraham, under...
JUDAH BEN ISAAC – French tosafist; born in Paris 1166; died there 1224 (Solomon Luria, Responsa, No. 29). According to Gross he was probably a descendant of Rashi, and a pupil of Isaac b. Samuel of Dampierre and his son Elhanan. He married a...
JUDAH B. KALONYMUS B. MEÏR – German historian and Talmudic lexicographer; flourished in the second half of the twelfth century. Judah came from one of the most celebrated Jewish families of Germany. Kalonymus, Judah's father, was a scholar, an elder in...
JUDAH HA-LEVI BEN SHALOM – Palestinian amora of the fourth generation; flourished in the second half of the fourth century. Few halakot of his are recorded in the Jerusalem Talmud. He appears as the opponent of Hananiah in the question of the fine imposed...