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Solomon Schechter, M.A., Litt.D.

President of the Faculty of the Jewish Theological Seminary of America, New York City.

Contributions:
ENOCH BEN ABRAHAM – Talmudist and popular preacher; died .after 1662. Enoch belonged to a famous family of scholars of the community of Posen. In 1649 he left Cracow, where he was preacher, to become rabbi at Gnesen. It is not known why he left the...
EPHOD – Biblical Data: In the Old Testament this word has two meanings; in one group of passages it signifies a garment; in another, very probably an image. In the former the ephod is referred to in the priestly ordinances as a part of...
EPHRAIM – Biblical Data: 1. Son of Joseph. The name is connected with the root ("to be fruitful": Gen. xli. 52). He was the younger of the two sons born to Joseph before the famine, Manasseh being the elder (Gen. xli. 51). Nevertheless,...
EPHRAIM MAḲSHA'AH – Scholar of the second century; disciple of R. Meïr. He is known only for several homiletic remarks in the name of his teacher. One accounts for the selection of Obadiah for the mission of evil tidings to the Edomites by...
EPHRAIM SAFRA – Palestinian scholar of the third century; disciple of Simeon b. Laḳish, in whose name he reports a civil law (B. M. 119a). The same report appears elsewhere (Yer. B. M. x. 12c) without the reporter's cognomen and without any...
'ERUB – Mixture or amalgamation; ideal combination of things separate. There are several kinds of 'erub.'Erub (par excellence): The law concerning the transportation of objects from one place to another on the Sabbath distinguishes...
'ERUBIN – The second treatise of the Mishnah Seder Mo'ed, forming an appendix to the treatise Shabbat. It contains regulations concerning three kinds of "'erub": (1) the 'erub par excellence, called also, as in the first paragraph of this...
ESAU – Biblical Data: Jacob's elder brother (Gen. xxv. 25-34, and elsewhere; comp. Josh. xxiv. 4). The name alternates with "Edom," though only rarely applied to the inhabitants of the Edomitic region (Jer. xlix. 8-10; Obad. 6; Mal. i....
ESTHER – Name of the chief character in the Book of Esther, derived, according to some authorities, from the Persian "stara" (star); but regarded by others as a modification of "Ishtar," the name of the Babylonian goddess (see...
ESTHER RABBAH – Midrash to the Book of Esther in the current Midrash editions. From its plan and scope it is apparently an incomplete collection from the rich haggadic material furnished by the comments on the roll of Esther, which has been...
ESTIMATE – Estimate differs greatly from Appraisement. The latter is a valuation put upon land or upon some commodity by men acting in a judicial capacity; the former is a sort of valuation made by the Mosaic law itself, mostly...
ETIQUETTE – Rules governing intercourse in polite society. Such rules are supposed by the Rabbis to have been laid down by the Bible itself. Moses modestly uses the plural in saying to Joshua, "Choose for us men and go fight with Amalek"...
EUNUCH – Biblical Data: As throughout the Orient in very ancient times, and more especially in Egypt and Assyria, where they seem to have held the most important offices, there were eunuchs in the kingdom of Israel. The reference to them...
EURYDEMUS BEN JOSE – One of the sons of Tanna Jose b. Ḥalafta. His name has been transmitted in the most varying forms: "Awradimus" ( ), "Abirodimus" ( ) "Abdimus" ( ), and "Wradimus" ( ). As a basic form Bacher assumes "Eurydemus" (compare the...
EUTOLEMUS – Name borne by a number of Palestinian Jews. R. Jose quotes in reference to several halakic questions the testimony of a certain "Eutolemus," who gave a decision in the name of five elders (R. H. 15a; Suk. 40a; 'Er. 35a), and...
EVE – Biblical Data: The wife of Adam. According to Gen. iii. 20, Eve was so called because she was "the mother of all living" (R. V., margin, "Life" or "Living"). On the ground that it was not "good for man to be alone" God resolved...
EVE OF HOLIDAYS – Unlike the early Babylonians, whose day began with sunrise, the Jews began theirs with sunset. Some critics, Dillmann among them, attempted to find traces of the Babylonian reckoning in the early portions of the Bible, but there...
EVIDENCE – Whenever in proceedings at law an issue arises—that is, in civil cases when a fact is asserted on one side and denied on the other—the issue is generally determined by evidence, which the party having the burden of proof must...
EXCOMMUNICATION – The highest ecclesiastical censure, the exclusion of a person from the religious community, which among the Jews meant a practical prohibition of all intercourse with society. For the etymology of the Hebrew terms used in this...
EXECUTION – Carrying into effect the decision of a court. The word also denotes the writ entrusting some officer of the law with the duty of carrying the judgment into effect. For the manner of carrying out a criminal sentence see Capital,...
EYBESCHÜTZ, JONATHAN – German rabbi and Talmudist; born in Cracow about the year 1690; died in Altona Sept. 18, 1764. His father, Nathan (Nata), who was a grandson of the cabalistic author Nathan Spira, was called as rabbi to Elbenschitz, Moravia,...
EYE – Biblical Data: This important organ is mentioned more than 800 times in the Bible, but is described only in its external appearance and significance, according to the experience of daily life. The following parts are mentioned:...
EZEKIEL – His Influence. —Biblical Data: Concerning the life of Ezekiel there are but a few scattered references contained in the book bearing his name. He was the son of Buzi, a priest of Jerusalem (Ezek. i. 3), and consequently a member...
EZEKIEL'S TOMB – The traditional burial-place of the prophet Ezekiel, around which many sagas and legends have gathered, is shown at Kefil near Birs Nimrud; for centuries it has been a favorite place of pilgrimage for Mohammedans as well as for...
EZRA – Palestinian halakist of the fifth century; disciple of R. Mana the Younger (Yer. Ter. i. 40b, vii. 44d). By a clerical error his name is sometimessubstituted for that of Azariah a haggadist of an earlier generation (Yer. Shab....