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George A. Barton, Ph.D.

Professor of Biblical Literature and Semitic Languages, Bryn Mawr College, Bryn Mawr, Pa.

Contributions:
ABIHU – Biblical Data: He is mentioned in Ex. xxiv. 1, 9, where he and his brother are classed with Moses and Aaron as the leaders or chiefs of the "elders" of Israel, who go up into the mount to eat the covenant meal with YHWH.In other...
ABIHU – Biblical Data: He is mentioned in Ex. xxiv. 1, 9, where he and his brother are classed with Moses and Aaron as the leaders or chiefs of the "elders" of Israel, who go up into the mount to eat the covenant meal with YHWH.In other...
ADAH – Biblical Data: One of Lamech's two wives (Gen. iv. 19, 20). The name is mentioned in the poem in verses 23 and 24.The names of Lamech's wives have been variously explained. "Ornament" and "Shadow" are the meanings most often...
ADAH – Wife of Esau (Gen. xxxvi. 2-16), thought by modern writers to be added by the final redactor (R) of the Pentateuch. Adah is said (verse 2) to be the daughter of Elon the Hittite. The priestly narrator (P) (Gen. xxvi. 34) has...
AHASUERUS – Biblical Data: 1. Persian king, identical with Xerxes (486-465 B.C.). The Book of Esther deals only with one period of his reign. It tells us that he ruled over one hundred and twenty-seven provinces—"from India, even unto...
AHITUB – 1. Father of Ahimelech, priest of Nob (I Sam. xxii. 9-19). The name Ahitub means, properly, "good friend," "good brother"; and is significant in connection with the fact that the house of Ahitub, through the acting priest,...
ALMOND – A term applied to a tree (Jer. i. 11, Eccl. xii. 5), to a fruit (Gen. xliii. 11, Num. xvii. 23 [A. V. 8]), and to a bud or flower (Ex. xxv. 33,xxxvii. 19). Once (Gen. xxx. 37) the same tree is called lûz, its name in Aramaic,...
ALOES – Translation of , occurring four times in the Old Testament (Num. xxiv. 6, Ps. xlv. 8, Prov. vii. 17, Cant. iv. 14), and of ἀλόη in the New(John, xix. 39). In all these passages, with the exception of the first, it signifies a...
ALTAR – Biblical Data: In the book of Genesis it is often said that altars were erected (viii. 20, xii. 7, xiii. 8, xxvi. 25, xxxiii. 20, etc.). These altars were usually heaps of stones such as Laban and Jacob built to sacrifice upon...
ALTAR – Biblical Data: In the book of Genesis it is often said that altars were erected (viii. 20, xii. 7, xiii. 8, xxvi. 25, xxxiii. 20, etc.). These altars were usually heaps of stones such as Laban and Jacob built to sacrifice upon...
ANOINTING – Biblical Data: Two words are employed in the Old Testament for Anointing, and . The former designates the private use of unguents in making one's toilet, the latter their use as a religious rite.As a means of soothing the skin...
ARADUS – A Phenician city on the island now called Ruad, eighty miles north of Sidon. It is the Arvad of Ezek. xxvii. 8, 11, the Armad of Tiglath-pileser III., and is also mentioned on the Egyptian monuments. Jews had migrated thither in...
ARAM – Location. —Biblical Data: The name of a group of kindred tribes scattered over portions of Syria, Mesopotamia, and Arabia. It is not the name of a country or of a politically independent people; for the Aramaic peoples were...
ARAM-GESHUR – An Aramean district and a small kingdom near Maachah (II Sam. xv. 8) (see Aram-Maachah), and associated with it in Josh. xiii. 13. David married the daughter of its king (II Sam. iii. 3). She became the mother of Absalom, who...
ARAM-MAACHAH – I Chron. xix. 6): A district south of Damascus, bordering on the trans-Jordanic territory of Manasseh. Maachah is said in Gen. xxii. 24 to have been a descendant of Nahor, Abraham's brother, and the territory called after him is...
ARAM-NAHARAIM – A region somewhat ill-defined, mentioned six times in the Bible. In the title of Ps. lx., and in I Chron. xix. 6, it is used for the region beyond the Euphrates (compare II Sam. x. 16). It is stated in Judges iii. 8, 10, that...
ARAM-REHOB – A district of Syria, of which the chief city was Rehob or Beth-Rehob, associated with Aram-Zobah as hostile to David. Num. xiii. 21 and Judges xviii. 28 place a Beth-Rehob in the Lebanon region near Dan. Moore (Commentary on...
ARAM-ZOBAH – The capital of an Aramean state, at one time of considerable importance. The statement in I Sam. xiv. 47, that its king fought with Saul, has hitherto been unconfirmed. No such doubt, however, attaches to the account of the war...
ARK OF THE COVENANT – Dimensions and Construction. —Biblical Data: The first mention of the Ark in the Bible is in Ex. xxv. 10 et seq., where Moses on Mount Sinai is told to have an Ark of shittim-wood made for the Commandments which are about to be...
ARPAD – A city of northern Syria, the modern Tell-Erfad, thirteen miles northwest of Aleppo. Itis mentioned in II Kings xviii. 34, xix. 13; Isa. x. 9, xxxvi. 19, xxxvii. 13; Jer. xlix. 23. Rammannirari III. fought against it (Schrader,...
ASAPH – 1. A son of Berechiah or Berachiah. (See Asaph ben Berechiah.) 2. The father of Joah, chronicler at the court of Hezekiah (II Kings xviii. 18, 37; II Chron. xxix. 13; Isa. xxxvi. 3, 22). 3. The keeper of the forests of...
ASHERAH – A Hebrew word occurring frequently in the Bible (R. V.) and signifying, except in a few late passages noted below, a wooden post or pole planted near the altars of various gods. In the Authorized Version the word is rendered...
ASHIMA – Biblical Data: One of the gods of the Hamathites, an image of which was set up in Samaria by the men of Hamath, whom Sargon settled there after 722 B.C. (II Kings xvii. 30). Jewish tradition explains the name as signifying a...
ASHMUN – The name of a Phenician god worshiped at Sidon and Carthage, in Cyprus and in Sardinia. A trilingual inscription from the latter island ("C. I. S." 143) identifies him with Æsculapius, the Greek god of healing. Near Sidon,...
ASHTAROTH – A city east of the Jordan on the table-land of Gilead. It was the capital of the kingdom of Og, king of Bashan (Josh. ix. 10), though it would seem from other passages (Deut. i. 4; Josh. xii. 4, xiii. 12 and 31) that Edrei...