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George A. Barton, Ph.D.

Professor of Biblical Literature and Semitic Languages, Bryn Mawr College, Bryn Mawr, Pa.

Contributions:
RECHABITES – Biblical Data: Members of a family descended from Hammath, the progenitor of the house of Rechab; otherwise known as the Kenites (I Chron. ii. 55), who were the descendants of Hobab (Jethro), the father-in-law of Moses (Judges...
RESURRECTION – Biblical Data: Like all ancient peoples, the early Hebrews believed that the dead go down into the underworld and live there a colorless existence (comp. Isa. xiv. 15-19; Ezek. xxxii. 21-30). Only an occasional person, and he an...
RUTH, BOOK OF – The Book of Ruth, which is poetically idyllic in character, although the narrative is in the form of prose, contains an episode from the period of the Judges. For this reason it is placed in the Septuagint after the Book of...
RUTH, BOOK OF – The Book of Ruth, which is poetically idyllic in character, although the narrative is in the form of prose, contains an episode from the period of the Judges. For this reason it is placed in the Septuagint after the Book of...
SARGON – King of Assyria; died 705 B.C. He is mentioned in the Bible only in Isa. xx. 1; and his name is preserved by no classic writer. All modern knowledge of him dates, therefore, from the discovery of his palace at Khorsabad, twelve...
SEMITES – Term used in a general way to designate those peoples who are said in Gen. x. 21-30 to be the descendants of the patriarch Shem.—Biblical Data: These descendants are enumerated in the passage cited as Elam, Asshur (Assyria),...
SEMITIC LANGUAGES – Languages spoken by the Semitic peoples (comp. Semites). These peoples are the North-Arabians, the South-Arabians, the Abyssinians (ancient and modern), the ancient Babylonians and Assyrians, the various Aramean tribes, the...
SETH – Biblical Data: According to Gen. iv. 25, 26 and v. 3-8, Seth was the third son of Adam. He was born after Cain had murdered Abel and when Adam was 130 years old. Seth lived to the age of 912. His eldest son was Enosh, who was...
SETH – Biblical Data: According to Gen. iv. 25, 26 and v. 3-8, Seth was the third son of Adam. He was born after Cain had murdered Abel and when Adam was 130 years old. Seth lived to the age of 912. His eldest son was Enosh, who was...
SHAMGAR – Biblical Data: One of the Judges; son of Anath. He smote 600 Philistines with an ox-goad and saved Israel (Judges iii. 31). During his judgeship so unsettled were the times that "the highways were unoccupied, and the travelers...
SHINAR – Biblical Data: Name for Babylonia occurring eight times in the Old Testament. In Gen. x. 10 the beginning of Nimrod's kingdom is said to have been "Babel, and Erech, and Accad, and Calneh, in the land of Shinar." In Gen. xi. 2,...
SIN-OFFERING – Biblical Data: The sin-offering proper is a sacrifice consisting of either a beast or a fowl and offered on the altar to atone for a sin committed unwittingly. The rules concerning the sin-offering are as follows: If the...
SIN-OFFERING – Biblical Data: The sin-offering proper is a sacrifice consisting of either a beast or a fowl and offered on the altar to atone for a sin committed unwittingly. The rules concerning the sin-offering are as follows: If the...
SONG OF MOSES – Biblical Data: Poem found in Deut. xxxii. 1-43. It is said that "Moses spake in the ears of all the assembly of Israel the words of this song" (Deut. xxxi. 30, R. V.; comp. ib. xxxii. 44). The song exhibits striking originality...
TELL EL-AMARNA – Of the Eighteenth Dynasty. Name derived from the Beni'Amran or El-Amarna Bedouins, and now given to the extensive ruins and rock-cut tombs which are the last relics of the ancient royal city of Khut Aten. These ruins are in...
TEMPLE OF HEROD – In the eighteenth year (20-19 B.C.) of his reign Herod rebuilt the Temple on a more magnificent scale. There are many evidences that he shared the passion for building by which many powerful men of that time were moved. He had...
TEMPLE, THE SECOND – The Temple of Solomon was destroyed by Nebuchadnezzar in 586 B.C. (II Kings xxv. 9). It is usually supposed that its sacred site was desolate and unused for fifty years, until the accession of Cyrus made the rebuilding of the...
TEMPLE OF SOLOMON – Biblical Data: David, according to II Sam. vii. 2 et seq., desired to build a temple for Yhwh, but was not permitted to do so, although, according to the Chronicler (I Chron. xxii. 14 et seq.), he prepared for the building a...
TEMPLE OF SOLOMON – Biblical Data: David, according to II Sam. vii. 2 et seq., desired to build a temple for Yhwh, but was not permitted to do so, although, according to the Chronicler (I Chron. xxii. 14 et seq.), he prepared for the building a...
TREE OF LIFE – Biblical Data: According to Gen. ii. 9, there stood in the midst of the Garden of Eden a "tree of life," apparently by the side of the "tree of knowledge of good and evil." Although Gen. iii. 3 seems to presuppose but one tree...
TREE-WORSHIP – Trees have been objects of worship in all parts of the world (comp. Mannhardt, "Wald- und Feldkulte," Berlin, 1875). They were worshiped among the Semites (comp. Wellhausen, "Reste Arab. Heidentums," 2d ed., 1897, pp. 101 et...
WELL, SONG OF THE – A poem which is quoted in Num. xxi. 17, 18. It is introduced in a list of the encampments made by Israel while crossing the wilderness. One of these camping-places was Beer. After this it is explained that Beer was the name of...
WITCHCRAFT – Witchcraft" and "sorcery" are the terms used in the Bible to designate the practise of the arts of divination, which were tabooed by orthodox religious sentiment. As this orthodox sentiment was not a constant quantity, practises...