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S. Mendelsohn, Ph.D.

Rabbi, Temple of Israel, Wilmington, N. C.

Contributions:
BENJAMIN B. IHI – A Babylonian scholar of the second and third amoraic generations (third century); brother of Abbahu b. Ihi, the disciple of Samuel. Both brothers, while intensely exclusive and diffident, so that they would have no dealings with...
BENJAMIN B. JAPHET – A Palestinian scholar of the third amoraic generation (third century), disciple of R. Johanan and senior to R. Zeïra I. (Ber. 33a, 38b; Ket. 77a). He cultivated both the Halakah and the Haggadah; in his halakic deliverances,...
BENJAMIN B. LEVI, R. – A Palestinian amora of the fourth century (third or fourth generation), junior contemporary of R. Ammi and R. Isaac (Yer. Peah i. 15a), and senior to Abin II. (Yer. Pes. vii. 34c; Yer. Hor. i. 46a). His name is connected with...
BENJAMIN HA-ZẠDDIḲ – A philanthropist of the tannaitic period. According to a Baraita, he was manager of certain charitable funds. Once there appeared before him a woman begging alms, but Benjamin protested that the treasury was exhausted. The poor,...
BERECHIAH I., R. – A Palestinian scholar of the second amoraic generation (third century), always cited without the accompaniment of patronymic or cognomen. Once only (Lev. R. i. 4) is he quoted as Berechiah Saba (the Elder), by R. Abin III., the...
BERECHIAH II., R. – A Palestinian amora, of the fourth century. In the Talmud he is invariably cited by his prænomen alone; but in the Midrashim he is frequently cited with the addition of "ha-Kohen," and sometimes with the further addition of the...
BET HILLEL AND BET SHAMMAI – The "School (literally, "house") of Hillel" and the "School of Shammai" are names by which are designated the most famous antagonistic schools that flourished in Palestine during the first century (first tannaitic generation),...
BISNA, BISINAH, BISNI (BIZNA) – Palestinian scholar of the fourth amoraic generation (fourth century); contemporary of Berechiah II., with whom he appears in a halakic discussion (Yer. Ma'as. v. 52a—"Bisinah"; Yer. Ned. iii. 37d; Yer. Shebu. iii. 34d, where...
BLEEDING – In accordance with the pathology of its epoch, the Talmud declares, "At the head of the list of human ailments stands plethora (B. B. 58b). The Rabbis say elsewhere (Bek. 44b), "Where there is an abundance of blood, there is...
BUN – As a personal prenomen this name is a dialectic abridgment of "Abun" ("Abin," "Rabin"; see Jastrow, "Dictionary," 147a; compare Pesiḳ, xxx. 192b; Yer. Ḥag. i. 76c; Yer. Suk. v. 55d), and appears exclusively in Palestinian...
CAPITAL PUNISHMENT – In the Pentateuch: Warrants for the infliction of capital punishment, as opposed to private retribution or vengeance, are found in the Pentateuchal codes for the commission of any one of the following crimes: adultery (Lev. xx....
CAUL – Biblical Data: Nowadays applied to the membrane surrounding the human fetus; used also in other senses. In the Bible:1. A rendering of the Hebrew , the second on the list of toilet articles worn by the women of Jerusalem (Isa....
CAUTION – Warning given to witnesses before testimony. Neither Biblical nor rabbinical law requires a witness to confirm his testimony by an oath. Jewish casuists are of opinion that the witness who would not tell the truth without an...
CONFESSION OF SIN – Biblical Data: The Scriptures repeatedly prescribe confession of sin as a means to expiation and atonement. "It shall be that when he is guilty of any one of these things, he shall confess that he hath sinned in that thing"...
CONFISCATION AND FORFEITURE – 1. Confiscation: Appropriation of private property to the public use or treasury. Confiscation of the property of peaceable aliens in Palestine who belonged to a nation at war with Israel, is not mentioned in either Biblical or...
DANIEL, ḤAYYAṬA – A Palestinian, two of whose Scriptural interpretations are preserved in the Midrash: one to Gen. xxvi. 14 (Gen. R. lxiv. 7; compare Sanh. 58b; Yalḳ. on Prov. xii. 11), and the other to Eccl. iv. 1 (Lev. R. xxxii. 8; Eccl. R. ad...
DANIEL B. ḲEṬINA – Babylonian amora; flourished in the second half of the third century. He was a contemporary of Ze'era (Yer. Suk. iv. 54b; Ḥul. 62a et seq.). He is cited in the Palestinian as well as in the Babylonian Talmud by some of the...
DIMI – Amora of the fourth century who often carried Palestinian doctrinal and exegetical remarks to the Babylonian schools, and Babylonian teachings to Palestine (see Abdima Naḥota). In consequence of a decree of banishment issued by...
DODAI (DUDAI) BEN NAḤMAN – Babylonian scholar of the eighth century and gaon of the academy at Pumbedita (761-764). Little is known of his life. He was a brother of the famous Judah b. Naḥman, gaon at Sura (759-762), and with him was instrumental in...
'EDAH ḲEDOSHAH – Two Hebrew appellations signifying respectively "holy congregation" and "sacred college"; the former being peculiar to the Palestinian sources, while the latter is used exclusively in the Babylonian Talmud. They designate a...
'EFA – Rabbinic scholar of the fourth century. He was a native of Babylonia, who, although but few halakot and fewer haggadot are associated with his name, acquired considerable fame as belonging to "the ingenious scholars of...
EFES – Scholar of the third century; secretary to the patriarch Judah I. (Gen. R. lxxv. 5), and one of the last tannaim. After Judah's death, while Efes conducted a college in southern Judea, on account of which he was called "Efes (in...
ELA (HELA, ILAA, ILAI, ILI, LA, LEIA, YELA) – Builder of the Law." Palestinian scholar of the third amoraic generation (third and fourth centuries). In one form or another, his name frequently appears in both Yerushalmi and Babli, mostly in the field of the Halakah. He was...
EL'ASAH – Amora, whose epoch is uncertain; known chiefly on account of a controversy which he had with a certain Philippus (or a philosopher). The latter remarked: "Does not the prophet say concerning Edom (Mal. i. 4), 'They shall build,...
ELEAZAR I. (LAZAR) (Eleazar b. Shammua') – Mishnaic teacher of the fourth generation, frequently cited in rabbinic writings without his patronymic (Ab. iv. 12; Giṭ. iii. 8, incorrectly "Eliezer"; compare Gem. Giṭ. 31b; Yer. Giṭ. iii. 45a, Mishnah and Gem.). He was of...