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Michael Friedländer, Ph.D.

Principal, Jews' College, London, England.

Contributions:
AARON BEN MESHULLAM BEN JACOB OF LUNEL – Ritualist; flourished about the end of the twelfth century and the beginning of the thirteenth; died about 1210 (according to "Shebeṭ Yehudah"). He was one of the five sons of Meshullam ben Jacob and seems to have written a book...
AARON BEN PEREZ OF AVIGNON – French rabbi and scholar; born about the middle of the thirteenth century; died in the first quarter of the fourteenth century. He was one of the leading scholars of Argentière, Languedoc, France. With other influential members...
ABBA MARI BEN MOSES BEN JOSEPH DON ASTRUC (En Astruc) OF LUNEL – Defender of Law and Tradition. (Graetz and others have, incorrectly, En Duran): Leader of the opposition to the rationalism of the Maimonists in the Montpellier controversy of 1303-1306; born at Lunel—hence his name, Yarḥi (from...
ALFASI, ISAAC BEN JACOB – His Career. Eminent Talmudist; born in 1013 at Kala't ibn Ḥamad, a village near Fez, in North Africa (whence his surname, which is sometimes attached also to Judah Ḥayyug, the grammarian); died at Lucena, 1103. Five scholars...
ALFASI, MASA'UD RAPHAEL – Rabbi in Tunis at the end of the eighteenth century; died in 1776. He is the author of "Mishḥa de-Rabuta" (Oil of Anointing), a work containing notes on Joseph Caro's "Shulḥan 'Aruk" (Leghorn, 1805). He was assisted by his two...
ALSHECH – Rabbi in Safed, Palestine, in the second half of the sixteenth century, and son of Ḥayyim Alshech. He was a disciple of R. Joseph Caro, author of the "ShulḦan 'Aruk"; and his own disciples included the cabalist R. Ḥayyim Vidal....
BABA – Originally, "gate," a Talmudic technical term for section, part, or clause. A single Mishnah may be divided into two or three parts: "resha" and "sefa," "beginning" and "end"; or "resha," "meẓi'ata," and "sefa," "beginning,"...
BABA BATRA – The third of the three Talmudic tractates of the order Neziḳin, dealing with man's responsibilities and rights as the owner of property, of a house or field. This "massekta" (treatise) is not, like Baba Ḳamma and Baba Meẓi'a,...
BABA ḲAMMA – The first of a series of three Talmudic treatises of the order Neziḳin dealing with damages. Baba Ḳamma is on compensation for damages. The regulations discussed in this tractate have their source in the judgments that Moses was...
BABA MEẒI'A – The second of the three Talmudic tractates of the order Neziḳin. It treats of man's responsibility with regard to the property of his fellow-man that has come lawfully into his possession for the present, and of which he is...
BARUK SHE-AMAR – The initial words of the introductory benediction recited before the reading of the Psalms ("Zemirot") or selections of the Psalms ("Pesuḳe de-Zimrah") in the daily morning service; the corresponding closing benediction being...
BEKOROT – The Mishnah. Name of the fourth treatise—according to the order of the Mishnah—of Seder Ḳodashim ("Holy Things"). The law concerning the first-born is repeated in the Pentateuch several times (Ex. xiii. 2, 11-15; xxxiv. 19-20;...
BERAKOT – The name of the first treatise of Seder Zeraim, the first Order of the Talmud. By the term "Berakot" a special form of prayer is understood, that begins with the words "Blessed art thou, O Lord, our God, King of the Universe."...
BETTING – The mutual agreement of two parties as to gain and loss upon a certain contingency. It seems to have been unknown in Biblical times. There is no mention of it in the Scriptures, unless an allusion to this kind of easy gain is...
BEẒAH – Name of a Talmudic treatise of Seder Mo'ed, the second of the six "sedarim" or orders of the Talmud. Its place in the Seder is not fixed. In the Babylonian Talmud it occupies the fourth place and follows immediately after...
BIKKURIM – Name of the last treatise of Seder Zera'im. It treats of the way of carrying out the commandment concerning first-fruits mentioned in Deut. xxvi. 1-11. The commandment includes two things: (1) the bringing of the first-fruit,...
CALENDAR – A systematic arrangement of the days of the year. The Jewish calendar reckons the days from evening to evening, in accordance with the order observed in the Biblical account of the Creation, "And there was evening and there was...
DAMA, SON OF NETINA – The name of a non-Israelite held up by Rabbi Eliezer and other rabbis to his brethren as an example of true love and piety toward parents. He lived in Ashkelon, and occupied there a high position, being πατήρ βουλἥς, "head of...
DAMAGE – Money recoverable as amends for a wrong or injury sustained. The simple and clear rule as to the obligation of a person who has caused damage to his fellow man is to give full compensation, and is expressed in the words "He that...
DAY – In the Bible, the season of light (Gen. i. 5), lasting "from dawn [lit. "the rising of the morning"] to the coming forth of the stars" (Neh. iv. 15, 17). The term "day" is used also to denote a period of twenty-four hours (Ex....
DEMAI – 1. Agricultural produce, the owner of which was not trusted with regard to the correct separation of the tithes. The tribe of Levi, having been excluded from participating in the division of the land, obtained as compensation a...
DEVOTION – The state of religious consecration. It is the most essential element in worship; so that a divine service without it is "like to a body without a soul." To such as pray to God without the spirit of fervent devotion, the stern...
DIN – Signifies (1) argument; (2) judgment; (3) laws and rules which form the basis of arguments and judgments; (4) justice, the object ofthe judgment; (5) punishment, the execution of the judgment. The term is generally used in...
ERA – A historical period or reckoning of years, dating from some important event or fixed point of time. A striking event of a lasting effect is generally taken as a starting-point for a new era. The Bible contains a few instances of...
'ERUB – Mixture or amalgamation; ideal combination of things separate. There are several kinds of 'erub.'Erub (par excellence): The law concerning the transportation of objects from one place to another on the Sabbath distinguishes...