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The unedited full-text of the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia
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Meyer Kayserling,

(deceased), Late Rabbi, Budapest, Hungary.

Contributions:
FERMOSA – A Jewess of Toledo named "Rahel," afterward called "Fermosa" (The Beautiful) because of her rare beauty. She held Alfonso VIII. of Castile, husband of the beautiful and clever Donna Leonora, under her spell for almost seven...
FERNANDEZ, MANUEL, DA VILLAREAL – Political economist and dramatist; born in Lisbon of Marano parents. He attended the University of Madrid, and served for a number of years in the army, in which he became captain. Later he removed to Paris as Portuguese...
FERNANDEZ Y GONZALEZ, FRANCISCO – Spanish Orientalist; professor in the University of Madrid; member of the Academia de la Historia. He is a son-in-law of the historian D. José Amador de los Rios. His great interest in the history and literature of the Jews has...
FEUST, KARL – German jurist; son of the chief rabbi of Bamberg; born at Bamberg Oct. 9, 1798; died at Fürth Aug. 19, 1872. Having been destined for a rabbinical career, he received a Talmudic education. At the age of fifteen he enteredthe...
FISCHER, KARL – Christian censor of Hebrew books in Prague; born in Lichtenstadt, Bohemia, July 5, 1755; died at Prague Jan. 22, 1844. He became assistant (1781), and finally successor, to the imperial censor Leopold Tirsch. He possessed an...
FISCHER, MOSES – Austrian rabbi; born at Prague about 1756; died at Eisenstadt, Hungary, about 1833; son of the wealthy Talmudic scholar Meïr Fischer, and father of Marcus Fischer. In addition to Talmud, Fischer studied philosophy and...
FLESCH, ABRAHAM – Rabbi in Vienna at the beginning of the seventeenth century. According to G. Wolf, he is identical with Abraham Austerlitz. Flesch is the author of a eulogy beginning with the words "Arid be-Siḥi," which appeared at the...
FLESCH, JOSEPH – German merchant; born in Rausnitz, Moravia; died there Dec. 17, 1839. Flesch wrote excellent Hebrew, was a collaborator of the "Bikkure ha-'Ittim," and translated into Hebrew several of the writings of Philo, notably "Quis Rerum...
FONSECA (FONSEQUA), DE – Jewish-Portuguese family of Amsterdam, Hamburg, London, southern France, and America.Abraham de Fonseca: Died at Hamburg July 27, 1671 (according to other authorities May, 1651); ḥakam of the Portuguese community at Glückstadt,...
FONSECA (FONSEQUA), DE – Jewish-Portuguese family of Amsterdam, Hamburg, London, southern France, and America.Abraham de Fonseca: Died at Hamburg July 27, 1671 (according to other authorities May, 1651); ḥakam of the Portuguese community at Glückstadt,...
FRAGA – City in Aragon. In 1328 Alfonso IV. confirmed all the privileges which the Moncadas had granted to the Jews of Fraga. Four years later he permitted his second wife, Leonora, to whom he had presented Huesca and Fraga, to admit...
FRANCO – A Jewish family which derived its name from a place near Navarre, Spain. There were Francos at Amsterdam, Venice, Tunis, Constantinople, Adrianople, Silistria, Magnesia, Smyrna, Brusa, and in the islands of Crete and Rhodes....
FRÄNKEL (FRANKEL-SPIRA), SIMON WOLF – Head of the Jewish community in Prague for two decades beginning May 20, 1724, and a stanch defender of his oppressed coreligionists; died June 9, 1745. He was wealthy by inheritance, and his extensive business interests brought...
FRANKFURTER, BERNHARD – German teacher and writer; son of Rabbi Moses Frankfurter; born at Herdorf March 15, 1801; died Aug. 13, 1867. In 1822 he became a teacher in the Israelitischer Volksschule at Nordstetten, Württemberg. Among his pupils was...
FRANKFURTER, NAPHTALI – German preacher; brother of Bernhard Frankfurter; born at Oberdorf Feb. 13, 1810; died April 13, 1866; studied at the universities of Heidelberg and Tübingen, graduating (Ph.D.) in 1833. For a time acting rabbi at...
FRESCO, DAVID – Turkish writer; descendant of Spanish exiles; born at Constantinople about 1850. He edited successively five Judæo-Spanish periodicals: "El Nacional" (1871: changed in 1872 to "El Telegraphe," later [1872] to "El Telegrafo");...
FRIEDLÄNDER, JOSEPH ABRAHAM – German rabbi; born at Kolin, Bohemia, 1753; died at Brilon, Westphalia, Nov. 26, 1852. He was the nephew of David Friedländer, from whom he imbibed a great enthusiasm for progressive Judaism. After attending the Talmud school of...
FULLANA, NICOLAS DE OLIVER Y – Chartographer; born on the island of Majorca; lived there as "Capitan" or "Cavallero Mallorquin" as late as 1650. On Oct. 1 of that year he wrote a Latin epigram of eight lines to Vicente Mut's "Historia del Reyno de Mallorca."...
FUNDAM, ISAAC – Spanish author and publisher; lived in Amsterdam about 1723. He wrote "Varios y Honestos Entretenimientos en Varios Entremeses, y Pasos Apasibles, que di á Luz D. Alonso de Castillo, Solozarno en Mexico" (Amsterdam, 1723), and...
FUNES – Town in Navarre, in the district of Olite; received a fuero (charter) in 1120, containing several clauses in restraint of the Jews there. In case of a bill amounting to more than five solidos, the Jew had to take an oath on a...
GABBAI – A family the members of which were found in Spain in the fifteenth century, and in Italy and the Levant from the seventeenth onward.Abraham Gabbai (Ysidro): Ḥakam in Amsterdam, later in Surinam; died before 1757. He wrote a...
GABBAI – A family the members of which were found in Spain in the fifteenth century, and in Italy and the Levant from the seventeenth onward.Abraham Gabbai (Ysidro): Ḥakam in Amsterdam, later in Surinam; died before 1757. He wrote a...
GALICIA., Spain – An ancient province in the northwestern part of Spain; a barren, mountainous region where Jews settled sparsely in the eleventh century. There were Jewish communities at Allariz, Coruña, Orense, Monforte, Pontevedra, Rivadavia,...
GALIPAPA, ḤAYYIM – Spanish rabbi; son of Abraham Galipapa; born at Monzon about 1310; died about 1380. He was rabbi at Huesca, and later at Pamplona, where he directed a Talmud school. Galipapa belonged to the liberal school, setting aside the...
GALIPAPA, ḤAYYIM MEBORAK – Bulgarian rabbi; lived and taught at Sofia about 1650 (Conforte, "Ḳore ha-Dorot," p. 52a).G. M. K.