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Meyer Kayserling,

(deceased), Late Rabbi, Budapest, Hungary.

Contributions:
PAUL DE BURGOS – His Baptism. Spanish archbishop; born at Burgos about 1351; died Aug. 29, 1435. His father, Isaac ha-Levi, had come from Aragon or Navarre to Burgos in the middle of the fourteenth century. Solomon ha-Levi was the wealthiest and...
PAZ, DUARTE DE – Portuguese Marano; representative of and attorney for his Portuguese coreligionists; died about 1541. He was a skilful diplomat but a weak character, and undertook a dubious rôle. He filled various military posts, and so...
PEDRO I. – King of Portugal (1357-67). This monarch, whose motto was "What the soul is to the body, justice is to the state and to society," was a model of justice, at least in his attitude toward the Jews. Two youths of noble blood who...
PEDRO II. – King of Aragon (1196-1213). Inspired with a desire to receive his kingly crown from the pontiff himself, he journeyed in 1204 to Rome, where Pope Innocent III. crowned him with his own hand and received his oath that he would be...
PEDRO II. (PEDRO D'ALCANTARA) – Emperor of Brazil; born Dec. 2, 1825; died at Paris Dec. 5, 1891. He succeeded his father, Pedro I., and assumed personal control of the government in July, 1840. The last years of his life were spent in exile after his...
PEDRO III. – King of Aragon (1276-85). Although Pedro III. protected the Jews from the hatred of the clergy, who destroyed their vineyards and disturbed their graves, and though he took especially severe measures against the Bishop of...
PEDRO IV. – King of Aragon (1336-87). During the whole of his long reign he showed himself just toward the Jews in his state, and more gracious than any of his predecessors. He had a Jewish body-physician, Rabbi Menahem, whose pupil in...
PEDRO DE TOLEDO – Viceroy of Naples; friend and protector of the Jews; he employed (c. 1530) Don Samuel Abravanel, the youngest son of Don Isaac Abravanel, as minister of finance, and allowed his daughter Leonora, afterward the wife of the grand...
PEÑAFORTE, RAYMUND DE – Chaplain to Pope Alexander IV.; grand master of the Dominican order until 1240; confessor of James I. of Aragon; lived in Barcelona. His principal aim was to convert Jews and Mohammedans to Christianity, and for the furtherance...
PENSO, JOSEPH – Merchant, poet, and philanthropist; born at Espejo, Spain, about 1650; died at Amsterdam Nov. 13, 1692. He was the son of Isaac Penso Felix and of Esther de la Vega, whose family name he assumed, and who was a relative of the...
PEREIRE – French family of which the following are the most distinguished members:(Jacob) Emile Pereire: French banker; grandson of Jacob Rodrigues Pereire; born at Bordeaux 1800; died at Paris Jan. 5, 1875. At the age of twenty-two he...
PEREYRA, ABRAHAM ISRAEL – Spanish writer and philanthropist; born at Madrid; died 1699 at Amsterdam. He went to Venice to escape the persecution of the Inquisition, and thence to Amsterdam.Pereyra was highly esteemed on account of his wealth and culture,...
PEREZ – Marano family of Cordova or Seville, several members of which were victims of the Inquisition in Spain and South America, while several others settled in Turkish territory.Aaron b. Abraham Perez: Chief rabbi at Jerba, where he...
PEREZ – Marano family of Cordova or Seville, several members of which were victims of the Inquisition in Spain and South America, while several others settled in Turkish territory.Aaron b. Abraham Perez: Chief rabbi at Jerba, where he...
PEREZ B. MENAHEM – Rabbi at Dreux; took part in his old age in the great synod held before 1160 under the presidency of Jacob b. Meïr (R. Tam). He was the father of Menahem Vardimas, author of an "'aḳedah" in forty-five verses. Perez was probably...
PHILIP IV. – King of Spain; called the "poet king" because he was devoted to poetry and art; born at Valladolid April 8, 1605; died Sept. 17, 1665. He delegated the regulation of affairs of state to his favorite, D. Gaspar Guzman, Count de...
PHILIPPSON – German family made distinguished by Ludwig Philippson, the founder of the "Allgemeine Zeitung des Judenthums"; it traces its descent back to Jacob Joshua, author of "Pene Yehoshua'," 1754.Alfred Philippson: German geologist;...
PHILIPPSON – German family made distinguished by Ludwig Philippson, the founder of the "Allgemeine Zeitung des Judenthums"; it traces its descent back to Jacob Joshua, author of "Pene Yehoshua'," 1754.Alfred Philippson: German geologist;...
PICHON (PICHO), JOSEPH – Almoxarife" and "contador mayor" (i.e., tax-collector-in-chief) of the city and the archbishopric of Seville; appointed in 1369 by Henry II. of Castile, who esteemed him highly on account of his honesty and cleverness. But on...
PINA, DE – Portuguese Marano family some members of which were able to escape the Inquisition and to confess Judaism openly in Amsterdam.Jacob (Manuel) de Pina: Spanish and Portuguese poet; born of Marano parents in Lisbon in 1616; went to...
PORTO (OPORTO) – Capital of the Portuguese province of Entre-Douro-e-Minho. After Lisbon it possessed in former times the largest Jewish congregation of the country, and it was the seat of the provincial rabbi or chief judge. As every where...
PORTUGAL – In the Thirteenth Century. Kingdom in the southwest of Europe. The condition of its Jews, whose residence in the country is contemporaneous with that of the Jews in Spain, while in general like that of their coreligionists in...
QUEMADERO (QUEMADERO DE TABLADA) – Place of execution built by the first inquisitors at Seville in 1481; it was decorated with four large statues representing prophets. The architect, as a follower of Judaism, was one of the firstto fall a victim to the...
QUERIDO, JACOB – Successor of Shabbethai Ẓebi; born at Salonica; died at Alexandria in 1690. He was a son of Joseph "the Philosopher" and a brother-in-law of Shabbethai Ẓebi. His sister, Shabbethai's widow, is said to have alleged, in order that...
RABE, JOHANN JACOB – German translator of the Mishnah and the Talmud; born 1710 in Lindflur, Unterfranken; died Feb. 12, 1798. He was city chaplain in Ansbach (Onolzbach). "This man is a strong Talmudist," wrote Moses Mendelssohn to Herder under...