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The unedited full-text of the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia
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Meyer Kayserling,

(deceased), Late Rabbi, Budapest, Hungary.

Contributions:
SHEMANA (SEMANA) – Scholarly and prominent family of Tunis.Samuel b. Joseph Shemana: Rabbi of Tunis, whose family subsequently settled at Susa. He wrote "Ḳeren Ẓebi" (Leghorn, 1835), a commentary on the "Sefer Ḳarnayim" of Aaron of Cardena.Solomon...
SI'A (V11p317001.jpg), LEON JUDAH ARYEH (NASR AL DIN) – Physician in Constantinople, and a friend of Jewish science; lived before 1633. He translated Judah ha-Levi's "Cuzari" and Baḥya's "Ḥobot ha-Lebabot" from Arabic into Latin, which his friend Jacob Roman intended to print...
SILVA, SAMUEL DA – Physician of Portuguese birth who lived in Amsterdam in the beginning of the seventeenth century. He is known especially through his energetic proceedings against Uriel da Costa. Before the latter's "Examination of the Pharisaic...
SILVEYRA (SILVEIRA), ABRAHAM (DIEGO) GOMES – Poet and preacher; long resident in various French and Dutch towns, finally settling at Amsterdam. He was a member of the Academy of Poets founded by D. Manuel de Belmonte in 1676, and was the author of a collection of...
SILVEYRA, MIGUEL DE – Spanish poet; born in Celorico, Portugal, in the last third of the sixteenth century; died at Naples in 1638. He studied philosophy at Coimbra, and jurisprudence, medicine, and mathematics at Salamanca; and for twenty years...
SPAIN – Early Settlement. Jews lived in Spain in very early times, although the legend that Solomon's treasurer Adoniram died there, as well as the story that the Jews of Toledo, in a letter addressed to the Sanhedrin at Jerusalem,...
SPINA (ESPINA), ALFONSO DE – One of the most inveterate enemies of the Jews and of Judaism—to which he never belonged, despite the assertions of Jost and of Amador de los Rios. He was general of the Order of Franciscans, rector of the University of...
SPIRA (SPIRO) – Family of scholars and rabbis of Speyer, Rhenish Bavaria, with numerous branches in other parts of Germany, and in Bohemia, Galicia, and Poland. It originally bore the name "Ashkenazi," to distinguish it from the Kahane or...
SPIRA (SPIRO) – Family of scholars and rabbis of Speyer, Rhenish Bavaria, with numerous branches in other parts of Germany, and in Bohemia, Galicia, and Poland. It originally bore the name "Ashkenazi," to distinguish it from the Kahane or...
SPIRA (SPIRO) – Family of scholars and rabbis of Speyer, Rhenish Bavaria, with numerous branches in other parts of Germany, and in Bohemia, Galicia, and Poland. It originally bore the name "Ashkenazi," to distinguish it from the Kahane or...
SPIRA (SPIRO) – Family of scholars and rabbis of Speyer, Rhenish Bavaria, with numerous branches in other parts of Germany, and in Bohemia, Galicia, and Poland. It originally bore the name "Ashkenazi," to distinguish it from the Kahane or...
SUASSO – Spanish family, with branches in Holland and England. The following are the more important members (in chronological order):Antonio (Isaac) Lopez Suasso: Resident of The Hague. For services rendered to King Charles II. of Spain,...
SWITZERLAND – Early Settlers. Republic of central Europe. Jews were living at Basel as early as 1213, and ten years later the church chattels were pawned with them. There were Jews at Bern in 1259, at St. Gall in 1268, at Zurich in 1273, and...
TARRAGONA – Capital of the province of Tarragona, Spain; the ancient Tarraco. It was called the "City of the Jews" by Edrisi (ed. Conde, p. 64), and contained a community at an early date, as is shown by Jewish coins discovered in the...
TARREGA – City of Catalonia. Jews were among its inhabitants when the counts of Barcelona took Catalonia from the Moors. They enjoyed certain privileges, which were confirmed in 1332 and later. At the special request of the king the...
TEIXEIRA – Noble Portuguese Marano family, originally bearing the surname of Sampayo. In accordance with a decree of King Philip IV. of Spain, its coat of arms—azure, a cross potencée or—was included in the Spanish roll of arms. In the...
TEIXEIRA, PEDRO – Portuguese traveler; born at Lisbon of Marano parents; died about the middle of the seventeenth century either at Verona (according to De Barrios, who is followed by Wolf, Zunz, and others) or at Antwerp (according to Barbosa...
TERONGI, RAPHAEL BENITO – Martyr. He, his teacher Raphael Valls, and his sister Catalina Terongi were together publicly burned as "Judios impenitentes" at the auto da fé held in Palma, Majorca, May 6, 1691. As soon as the victims beheld the flames they...
TERUEL – City of Aragon. In the Middle Ages it possessed a prominent Jewish community, which enjoyed several privileges, and which paid in the fourteenth century a yearly tax of 300 sueldos. Its members were engaged in commerce and...
TIRADO, JACOB – Convert to Judaism in Amsterdam in the sixteenth century; died in Jerusalem. With several Maranos he sailed from Portugal in a vessel which was driven out of its course to Emden in East Friesland. Following the advice of Rabbi...
TOLEDANO – A family taking its name from Toledo, the city in which it originated, and including printers, Talmudic scholars, rabbis, and diplomats in Turkey, Africa, Holland, and England, being still represented in Salonica, Jerusalem,...
TORDESILLAS – Spanish city near Valladolid, with a Jewish community, which was visited by Vicente Ferrer toward the end of 1411 for propagandic purposes. He advised the Jews of the city to change their abode for the narrow ghetto of...
TORDESILLAS, MOSES HA-KOHEN DE – Spanish controversialist, who was called upon to suffer for his faith, an attempt being made to convert him to Christianity by force. Despite cruel persecution, he remained true to his convictions, although he was robbed of all...
TORTOSA – City in Catalonia where Jews lived and owned land as early as the Roman period. This Jewish community was one of the richest in the country in the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries, and had certain ancient privileges which...
TUDELA – Jewish Body-Physicians. The oldest and most important Jewish community in the former kingdom of Navarre. When Alfonso the Valiant captured the city from the Moors in 1114 it contained a large number of Jews. As they were...