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Cyrus Adler, Ph.D.

President of the American Jewish Historical Society; Former President of the Board of Directors of the Jewish Theological Seminary of America; Assistant Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D. C.

Contributions:
JACOBI, ABRAHAM – American physician; born at Hartum, near Minden, Westphalia, May 6, 1830; educated at the universities of Greifswald, Göttingen, and Bonn (M.D., 1851). Identified with the revolutionary movement in Germany, he was imprisoned at...
JACOBS, GEORGE – American rabbi of English Sephardic descent; born in Kingston, Jamaica, Sept. 24, 1834; died in Philadelphia July 14, 1884. He went to the United States in 1854 and settled in Richmond, Va., frequently officiating for the...
JACOBS, HENRY S. – American rabbi; born in Kingston, Jamaica, March 22, 1827; died in New York Sept. 12, 1893. He studied for the Jewish ministry under the Rev. N. Nathan, at Kingston, holding at the same time the position of head master in the...
JACOBS, JOSEPH – Critic, folklorist, historian, statistician, communal worker; born Aug. 29, 1854, at Sydney, N. S. W.; educated at Sydney Grammar School, Sydney and London universities, and St. John's College, Cambridge (senior moralist, 1876)....
JACOBSON, NATHAN – American surgeon; born in Syracuse, N. Y., June 25, 1857. He was graduated from Syracuse University, and took a postgraduate course at the University of Vienna. He is professor of clinical surgery in the College of Medicine of...
JAHRZEIT – Accompanied with Fasting. Judæo-German term denoting the anniversary of a death, commemorated by mourning and by reciting the Ḳaddish. The custom of commemorating the death of the beloved and honored is of ancient origin ( see...
JALOMSTEIN, MORDECAI B. DAVID – American journalist; born in Suwalki, Russian Poland, 1835; died in New York city Aug. 18, 1897. He was well versed in Talmudic and neo-Hebrew literature, and was a skilful linguist. He went to New York in 1871 and for several...
JAMAICA – Largest island in the British West Indies. It has a total population of 644,841 (1901), of whom about 2,400 are Jews. When England conquered the island in 1655, a considerable number of Jewish inhabitants was found there, known...
JANUARIUS – Talmudic name of a legendary hero; it is taken from the name of the first of the twelve Roman months. R. Johanan, in Yer. 'Ab. Zarah i. 39c, relates as follows: "The governments of Egypt and Rome, having been at war with each...
JASTROW, JOSEPH – American psychologist; born Jan. 30, 1863, at Warsaw, Poland. He accompanied his father, Dr. Marcus Jastrow, to the United States in 1866, and was educated in Philadelphia. In 1882 he graduated from the University of...
JASTROW, MARCUS (MORDECAI) – American rabbi and scholar; born June 5, 1829, at Rogasen, Prussian Poland; died Oct. 13, 1903, at Germantown, Pa.; fifth child of Abraham Jastrow and Yetta (Henrietta) Rolle. Until 1840 he was privately educated. In 1844 he...
JASTROW, MORRIS, JR. – American Orientalist and librarian; son of Marcus Jastrow; born Aug. 13, 1861, at Warsaw, Poland. His family removed to the United States in 1866, and settled in Philadelphia. Morris received his early education chiefly at...
JEWISH PUBLICATION SOCIETY OF AMERICA – Society for "the publication and dissemination of literary, scientific, and religious works giving instruction in the principles of the Jewish religion"; the third of its kind in the United States (see Jew. Encyc. i. 519). Its...
JEWISH THEOLOGICAL SEMINARY OF AMERICA – Rabbinic seminary established in New York city under the auspices of the Jewish Theological Seminary Association; founded in 1886 mainly by the exertions of Dr. Sabato Morais of Philadelphia, and conducted by him till his death,...
JOACHIMSEN, PHILIP J. – American jurist and communal worker; born in Breslau Nov., 1817; died in New York city Jan. 6, 1890. He emigrated to New York in 1827, and was admitted to the bar there in 1840. During the Civil war, he organized and commanded...
JOHNSON – American family, members of which have attained distinction in Ohio, Texas, and New York. The family is from England, the most important members being:David Israel Johnson: The earliest known member of the family; married Eliza...
JONAS, BENJAMIN FRANKLIN – American lawyer, soldier, and statesman; born in Williamstown, Grant county, Kentucky, July 19, 1834. In early youth he removed to Adams county, Illinois, where he received his education. In 1853 he went to New Orleans, where he...
JONES, ALFRED T. – American editor and communal worker; born in Boston July 4, 1822; died at Philadelphia Oct. 3, 1888. In 1842 he became a resident of Philadelphia, and was successively engaged in the wholesale clothing and printing businesses....
JOSEFFY, RAFAEL – American piano virtuoso; born in 1852 in Hunfalu, Hungary. In the following year the family moved to Miskolcz, where he spent his childhood and received his first musical instruction. At the age of ten he made his first public...
JOSEPH – Prominent Jewish family which settled in Canada toward the close of the eighteenth century. It was descended from Naphtali Joseph, of an Anglo-Jewish family which had come from the Netherlands.1. Abraham Joseph: A brother of...
JOSEPH BEN ABRAHAM – Liturgical poet. Seven prayers bearing the name "Joseph ben Abraham" are found in the Siddur of Avignon. Zunz identifies this Joseph with Joseph of Monselice, whose seliḥah for the seventeenth of Tammuz is inserted in the ritual...
JOSEPH, JACOB – Russian-American rabbi; born at Krozhe, government of Kovno, Russia, 1848; died at New York July 28, 1902. He studied in the yeshibah at Volozhin under Hirsch Leib Berlin and Israel Salanter, and his aptness as a student won him...
JOSHUA BEN MORDECAI FALK HAKOHEN – American Talmudist; born at Brest-Kuyavsk, government of Warsaw, in 1799; died at Keokuk, Iowa, in 1864. While still a young man he settled in Kurnik, Prussia, and consequently he sometimes called himself "Joshua of Kurnik." In...
JUDÆANS, THE – A society organized in New York Jan. 28, 1897, upon lines similar to those of the Maccabæans in London, England. It was formed "for the purpose of promoting and furthering the intellectual and spiritual interests of Jews."...
JUDAH – Family members of which settled in Newport, R. I., New York, Charleston, Richmond, Philadelphia, Montreal, Jamaica, and Surinam. The following is an alphabetical list of those known to have lived in America (the "Publications of...