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Cyrus Adler, Ph.D.

President of the American Jewish Historical Society; Former President of the Board of Directors of the Jewish Theological Seminary of America; Assistant Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D. C.

Contributions:
LEWISOHN, LEONARD – American merchant and philanthropist; born in Hamburg Oct. 10, 1847; died in London March 5, 1902. His father, Samuel Lewisohn, a prominent Hamburg merchant, sent him to the United States in 1863; about three years later he was...
LICHTENBERG, LEOPOLD – Violinist; born at San Francisco, Cal., Nov. 22, 1861. He studied under Beaujardin, and made his first appearance in concert when eight years of age. At twelve he became a pupil of Wieniawski, whom he accompanied on a tour...
LIEBLING, EMIL – German pianist; born at Pless, Silesia, April 12, 1851. After a course in piano at the Neue Akademie der Tonkunst, Berlin, under Ehrlich and Kullak, he continued his studies with Dachs at Vienna and with Liszt at Weimar. In 1867...
LINDO, MOSES – Planter and merchant in South Carolina; born probably in England; died at Charleston, S. C., April 26, 1774. He seems to have been considered one of the foremost experts in the cochineal and indigo trade in London. Becoming...
LIPMAN, CLARA – American actress; born in Chicago. She made her début as an ingénue with Modjeska in 1888, and subsequently played similar parts in A. M. Palmer's company. She created the principal rôle in "Incog" (1891), but before this had...
LIPSCHUTZ, SOLOMON – American chess-player; born at Ungvar, Hungary, July 4, 1863. At the age of seventeen he emigrated to New York, where he soon became known in chess circles. In 1883 he was chosen as one of a team to represent New York in a match...
LITTAUER, LUCIUS NATHAN – American congressman and manufacturer; born in Gloversville, N. Y., Jan. 20, 1859. He graduated from Harvard University in 1878, after which he engaged in the glove-manufacturing business with his father, whom he succeeded in...
LITURGY – Divisions of Divine Service. The Jewish religious service falls, generally, into two main divisions—instruction and prayer. This division of the service has existed since the earliest times. In the time of Isaiah the people...
LOEB, JACQUES – American biologist; born in Germany April 7, 1859; educated at the universities of Berlin, Munich, and Strasburg (M. D. 1884). He took a postgraduate course at the universities of Strasburg and Berlin, and in 1886 became...
LOEB, LOUIS – American artist; born at Cleveland, Ohio, Nov. 7, 1866. At the age of thirteen he was apprenticed to a lithographer in his native city, and in 1885 went to New York, where he studied in the night-schools of the Art Students'...
LOEB, MORRIS – American chemist; born at Cincinnati, Ohio, May 23, 1863; son of Solomon Loeb; educated at the New York College of Pharmacy and at the universities of Harvard, Berlin, Heidelberg, and Leipsic. In 1888 he became private assistant...
LOS ANGELES – Commercial and manufacturing city in the state of California; situated on the left bank of the river of the same name, and about 14 miles from the Pacific Ocean. Jews first settled in Los Angeles in 1849; and they increased in...
LOTS – Means of determining chances. Primitive peoples, and occasionally those on a higher plane of culture, resort to lots for the purposes of augury. They spin a coconut or entangle strips of leather in order to obtain an omen....
LOVEMAN, ROBERT – American poet; born at Cleveland, Ohio, April 11, 1864; educated and now (1904) residing at Dalton, Ga.; M.A., University of Alabama. He has published the following volumes of verse, which have won for him recognition from...
LOW, A. MAURICE – Anglo-American writer; born in London July 14, 1860. Educated at King's College School in that city, and afterward in Austria, he devoted himself to journalism. Since 1888 he has been correspondent at Washington, D. C., for the...
LULAB – Name given to the festive palm-branch which with the Etrog is carried and waved on the Feast of Tabernacles (Sukkot). The three constituents of the lulab are: (1) a shoot of the palm-tree in its folded state before the leaves...
LUMBROZO, JACOB – Physician, planter, and trader resident in the palatinate of Maryland, America, in the middle of the seventeenth century; born at Lisbon; died between Sept. 24, 1665, and May 31, 1666. From Portugal he removed to Holland, and...
LYON, ABRAHAM DE – One of the first Jewish settlers in Georgia, U. S. A.; ancestor of the well-known family of that name which has figured prominently in the annals of that state. According to a family tradition he was born in Spain. The early...
LYON, ROBERT – American journalist; born in London, England, Jan. 15, 1810; died in New York city March 10, 1858. After a brief business career in London, he emigrated to the United States (1844), and, meeting no success in a manufacturing...
LYONS, JACQUES JUDAH – American minister; son of Judah and Mary Lyons; born in Surinam, Dutch Guiana, Aug. 25, 1814; died in New York Aug. 12, 1877. He was educated in Surinam, and was minister of the Spanish and Portuguese congregation there. Neweh...
MA'ASEH BOOKS – Books written in Judæo-German in Hebrew script, and containing stories, legends, and tales ("ma'asim") on various subjects, most of them relating to Jews and Judaism. They originated about the beginning of the fifteenth century,...
MACHADO – Name of a family of Maranos which appears to have emigrated to America from Lisbon. The name is met with in Mexico and the West Indies at a very early date. As early as 1600, during the course of the trial of Jorge de Almeida by...
MACHORRO – Name of a family of Sephardim that flourished in Brazil, Germany, Holland, Hungary, and Italy. Thirteen persons bearing the name are buried in Altona, the earliest epitaph being dated 1620 and the latest 1782. A Jac[ob] de...
MAFṬIR – 1. The reader of the concluding portion of the Pentateuchal section on Sabbaths and holy days in the synagogue. On regular Sabbaths that portion forms a part of the section read by the seventh reader, and is repeated by the one...
MAH NISHTANNAH – The opening words of the child's questions to the father in the Passover Haggadah; the whole of the domestic service of the Passover is sometimes, familiarly, so named. The questions are often chanted in the students'...