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Cyrus Adler, Ph.D.

President of the American Jewish Historical Society; Former President of the Board of Directors of the Jewish Theological Seminary of America; Assistant Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D. C.

Contributions:
MALTER, HENRY – American rabbi and scholar; born at Zabno, Galicia, March 23, 1867; educated at the Zabno elementary school, and at the universities of Berlin (1889-93) and Heidelberg (Ph.D. 1894). He pursued his Jewish studies at the Veitel...
MAMRAN – A check; an expression used by Polish Jews from the end of the sixteenth to the beginningof the nineteenth century. The word is derived from "membrana," Low Latin equivalent for "promissory note." It was first used by Mordecai...
MANN, LOUIS – American actor; born in New York city 1865; son of Daniel and Caroline Mann. He began his career as an actor when but six years of age. In 1880 Mann went on tour with a small company, and subsequently was engaged by the elder...
MANNHEIMER (HERSCHMAN), LOUISE – Writer and poetess; born at Prague Sept. 3, 1845. In 1866 she went with her parents to New York, where she became the wife of Prof. Sigmund Mannheimer. She wrote German and English poems, and articles and reviews for German and...
MANNHEIMER, SIGMUND – American educator; born at Kemel, Hesse-Nassau, May 16, 1835. Educated at the teachers' seminary at Ems, Nassau, he became teacher in the Jewish schools of Schierstein (1853) and Hegenheim (1858). In 1861 he entered the...
MA'OZ ẒUR – Commencement of the hymn originally sung only in the domestic circle, but now used also in the synagogue, after the kindling of the lights on the Feast of Dedication (Ḥanukkah). The acrostic signature is that of Mordecai. Zunz...
MARGOLIS, MAX LEOPOLD – American philologist; born at Meretz, government of Wilna, Russia, Oct. 15, 1866; son of Isaac Margolis; educated at the elementary school of his native town, the Leibnitz gymnasium, Berlin, and Columbia University, New York...
MARKENS, ISAAC – American writer; born in New York city Oct. 9, 1846; son of Elias Markens, a linguist and Orientalist. Isaac Markens was educated in the public schools of his native city. He became a merchant, and afterward private secretary to...
MARKS, MARCUS M. – American merchant; born at Schenectady, N. Y., March 18, 1858. In 1877 he started a business at Passaic, N. J., and later entered the wholesale clothing firm of his father, David Marks & Sons. He has held many prominent...
MARRIAGE CEREMONIES – Association of the sexes was much restricted among the Jews, and the Betrothal was generally brought about by a third person, often a professional match-maker ("shadkan"). The latter received a brokerage-fee fixed by law, as a...
MARSHALL, LOUIS – American lawyer and communal worker; born at Syracuse, N. Y., Dec. 14, 1856; educated at the Syracuse high school and at the Columbia College Law School. He entered upon the practise of his profession in Syracuse in 1878,...
MARYLAND – One of the thirteen original States of the American Union. The history of the Jews in Maryland may be divided into three periods: the first extends from shortly after the establishment of the provincial government at St. Mary's,...
MASSACHUSETTS – A northeastern state in the American Union. The earliest record of a Jew in Massachusetts bears the date of May 3, 1649, and refers to a certain Solomon Franco, for whom an allowance was made pending his return to Holland; and...
MATRIARCHY – A system of society in which descent and property are traced solely through females. It has been suggested that the prominence given to the mothers of kings in the Books of Kings and to the wives of the Patriarchs are survivals...
MAY, LEWIS – American merchant and banker; born in Worms Sept. 23, 1823; died at Dobbs Ferry, N. Y., July 22, 1897. He went to the United States in 1840, and in 1845 established an independent business in Shreveport, La. In 1850 he effected...
MAY, MITCHELL – Member of the American House of Representatives; born in Brooklyn, N. Y., July 10, 1871; educated at the Brooklyn Polytechnic Institute and Columbia Law School. He was a member of the 56th Congress (1899 to 1901) and has held...
MAYER, CONSTANT – French painter; born at Besançon Oct. 4. 1832. He became a pupil at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts and of Léon Cogniet in Paris. In 1857 he went to America and settled in New York, but later returned to Paris, where he now (1904)...
MAYER, HENRY – American caricaturist; born at Worms July 18, 1868. Mayer is the son of a Jewish merchant of London, but was educated at Worms. In 1885 he went to Mexico, and subsequently to Texas. There he discovered his ability to draw, and...
MAYER, MORITZ – German rabbi; born at Dürckheim-on-the-Hardt, Germany, Dec. 16, 1821; died at New York Aug. 28, 1867. He studied law at Munich, and entered on the practise of his profession in his native city, when the revolution of 1848 broke...
MEDALS – Soon after the revival of the art of engraving medals, about the middle of the fifteenth century, a few Jewish specimens were struck in Italy, although the number was very small on account of the general oppression of the Jews...
MEMORIAL SERVICE – Prayer for the dead is mentioned as early as the last pre-Christian century (see II Macc. xii. 44), and a sacrifice for the dead, probably given in the form of charity, was known in Talmudic time (Sifre, Deut. 210; Hor. 6a). The...
MEMPHIS – Largest city of the state of Tennessee in the United States of America. Although the year 1845 is designated as the date of the earliest settlement of Jews in Memphis, it appears that a few had lived there temporarily before...
MENAHEM BEN MACHIR – German liturgist of the eleventh century; a native of Ratisbon. His grandfather, also called Menahem b. Machir, was a nephew of Gershom b. Judah, and he himself was a cousin of Isaac b. Judah, Rashi's teacher. He is quoted in...
MENDELSOHN, SAMUEL – American rabbi and scholar; born in Shillelen, province of Kovno, Russia, March 31, 1850. He was educated at the rabbinical college, Wilna, at the rabbinic school, Berlin, and at Maimonides' College, Philadelphia, Pa. (1873). In...
MENDES – One of the oldest Sephardic families. It continued in Spain and in Spanish possessions long after 1492, the year of the general expulsion. Many members of the family and its connections undoubtedly succeeded that year in joining...