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The unedited full-text of the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia
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Cyrus Adler, Ph.D.

President of the American Jewish Historical Society; Former President of the Board of Directors of the Jewish Theological Seminary of America; Assistant Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D. C.

Contributions:
MENKEN – American family, the first known member of which was Solomon Menken.Jacob Stanwood Menken: American merchant; born in Cincinnati 1838; youngest son of Solomon Menken. With his brother Nathan Davis he entered the Union army, and...
MENORAH – The holy candelabrum. For Biblical Data See Candlestick. The Mosaic Menorah as Described in Rabbinical Literature.(After a sketch by J. D. Eisenstein, New York.)—In Rabbinical Literature: The Talmud speaks only of the menorah...
MESQUITA – Castilian family, members of which, during the period of the Inquisition, found their way to Holland, England, and America.David Bueno de Mesquita was one of the wealthy merchants of Amsterdam about the middle of the seventeenth...
MESSING – Prussian family, members of which in the nineteenth century settled in the United States of America.Joseph Messing: Talmudist, exegete, and rabbi; born at Argenau, Prussia, April 30, 1812;died in London, England, March 20, 1880....
MEYER, ADOLPH – American congressman; born at New Orleans, La., Oct. 19, 1842. He was a student at the University of Virginia when the Civil war broke out; and in 1862 he entered the Confederate army, serving until the close of the war on the...
MEYER, ANNIE – American writer; born in New York city Feb. 19, 1867. She early revealed literary gifts, and articles from her pen appeared in "The Critic," "Harper's Bazar," "Lippincott's Magazine," and "The Bookman." The best-known of her...
MEZUZAH – Name given to a rectangular piece of parchment inscribed with the passages Deut. vi. 4-9 and xi. 13-21, written in twenty-two lines according to the same rules as those for the Torah and tefillin. The parchment is rolled up and...
MICHAEL BEN MOSES COHEN – Palestinian rabbi and liturgist; lived at Jerusalem in the seventeenth century. He wrote "Moreh Ẓedeḳ" (Salonica, 1655), an index to the laws contained in the Shulḥan 'Aruk, Ḥoshen Mishpaṭ, showing where they may be found in...
MICHAEL, MOSES GERSON – American merchant and capitalist; born Aug. 15, 1862, at Jefferson, Ga. At an early age he graduated as B.E. from the University of Georgia with highest honors, and shortly afterward entered with his brother Simon upon a...
MICHELSON, ALBERT A. – American physicist; born at Strelno, in the district of Bromberg, Prussia, Dec. 19, 1852. His father, Samuel Michelson, emigrated to the United States and settled inSan Francisco, where Albert Michelson received his early...
MICHIGAN – One of the Western states of the United States of America. There are no records of the settlement of Jews in Michigan prior to the year 1848, when about a dozen families of Bavarian Jews settled in Detroit. Within a decade a few...
MIELZINER, MOSES – American rabbi and author; born at Schubin, province of Posen, Germany, Aug. 12, 1828; died at Cincinnati Feb. 18, 1903. His father, Benjamin, rabbi in his native town, gave him the first instruction in Talmudic literature,...
MI-KAMOKAH – Opening words of the verse Ex. xv. 11, which, with verse 18 of the same chapter ("Adonai Yimlok," etc.), is regularly employed as a response in the evening and morning services between the Shema' and the Shemoneh 'Esreh....
MIḲWEH – Literally, a "collection," a "collected mass," especially of water (Gen. i. 10; Ex. vii. 19; Lev. xi. 36; comp. Isa. xxii. 11). Because of the use made of this word in connection with ritual purification (Lev. xi. 36), it has...
MILK – A common article of food among the ancient Hebrews.—Biblical Data: Palestine is praised in the Bible as a "land flowing with milk and honey" (Ex. iii. 8 et al.), milk representing the common necessities of life, and honey...
MILWAUKEE – Metropolis of the state of Wisconsin. The oldest congregation of Milwaukee, Bene Jeshurun, was organized in 1855 by Löbl Rindskopf, Leopold Newbauer, Solomon Adler, Emanuel Silverman, and others of the first Jewish settlers in...
MINIS – American family especially prominent in the South. Its founder, Abraham Minis, went from England to America in 1733. The family tree is as follows:Pedigree of the Minis Family. Abraham Minis: One of the earliest settlers in the...
MINNEAPOLIS – Chief commercial city of the state of Minnesota. In 1900 it had in a total population of 202,718 a Jewish community of about 6,000 souls. The first Jewish settlers were Germans, Bohemians, and Russians, who went there between...
MINNESOTA – One of the northwestern states of the American Union. It has a Jewish population of about 13,000, distributed in the following cities: Minneapolis, the largest city of the state, 6,000; St. Paul, the capital city, 5,000; Duluth,...
MINYAN – Literally, "count"; the quorum necessary for public worship. The smallest congregation which is permitted to hold public worship is one made up of ten men, boys over thirteen years being for this, as for other religious...
MISSISSIPPI – One of the southern states of the United States of America; admitted to the Union in 1817. In 1682 La Salle took possession of the territory for the King of France. It passed to England in 1763, was ceded to Spain in 1781, and...
MISSOURI – One of the central states of the United States; admitted to the Union in 1821. While yet a territory it was inhabited by Jewish settlers, the earliest of whom were the Bloch family. The Jewish communities of the state are as...
MIZMOR LE-DAWID – The superscription to Ps. xxix., chanted on Sabbaths before the evening service, and at morning service while the scroll of the Law is being returned to the Ark. Settings by modern composers are in most cases utilized in the...
MIZMOR SHIR LE-YOM HA-SHABBAT – The superscription to Ps. xcii., chanted with Ps. xciii. before the commencement of evening service on Sabbaths (including festivals falling on that day) in the "Pesuḳe de-Zimrah" of the early part of morning service on Sabbaths...
MIZRAḤ – Hebrew term denoting the rising of the sun, the east (Num. xxi. 11; Ps. I. 1); also used to designate an ornamental picture hung on the eastern wall of the house, or in front of the readingdesk in the synagogue, and applied to...