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The unedited full-text of the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia
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Cyrus Adler, Ph.D.

President of the American Jewish Historical Society; Former President of the Board of Directors of the Jewish Theological Seminary of America; Assistant Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D. C.

Contributions:
MÜNSTERBURG, HUGO – American psychologist; born at Danzig, Prussia, June 1, 1863. After being trained at the gymnasium of his native city he studied philosophy at Leipsic (Ph.D. 1885) and medicine at Heidelberg (M.D. 1887). Devoting himself to...
MUSAF – Additional offering or prayer. Besides the regular morning and afternoon sacrifices offered in the Temple, the Law provided for additionalofferings to be brought on Sabbaths, New Moons, the three festivals, New-Year, and the Day...
MUSIC, SYNAGOGAL – Temple Origins. Coin of Second Revolt Bearing Two Trumpets.(After Madden, "History of Jewish Coinage.")It has been shown in the article Cantillation (Jew. Encyc. iii. 537b) that the desire to read the Scriptures in the manner...
MYERS, MAURICE WILLIAM – American librarian; born in London, England, Feb. 18, 1821; died in Cincinnati, Ohio, Dec. 8, 1899. He emigrated to New York in 1833, and removed to Cincinnati in 1837. He first studied law and was admitted to the bar, but...
NATHAN – American family that has been identified with both the general and the Jewish community of New York city since the latter half of the eighteenth century. The earliest member of the family (in America) was Simon Nathan.Benjamin...
NATHAN, ISAAC – English musician and composer; born at Canterbury, England, in 1792; died at Sydney, N. S. W., Jan. 15, 1864. He was intended for the ministry and studied under Professor Lyon at Cambridge, but, owing to his love of music, he...
NATIONAL FARM SCHOOL – American institution having for its object the training of Jewish lads in practical and scientific agriculture; situated at Farm School, Doylestown, Bucks County, Pa. The founding of the school was proposed in 1894 by the Rev....
NAUMBURG, LOUIS – Cantor; born in Treuchtlingen, Bavaria, 1813; died in New York city March 4, 1902. He was descended from a family of cantors, traceable in an unbroken line as far back as 1612, every generation having had at least one member...
NEBICH (NEBBICH) – Judæo-German term carrying the sense of "regret" and "pity." It is used as a noun, an adverb, and most often as an interjection; e.g., "Nebich, the poor man"; "He is a great nebich" (object of pity). The etymological explanation...
NEBRASKA – One of the central units of the United States of America; admitted into the Union in 1854. Jews traversed the state on their way to California during the gold-finding period of 1848-1849; there is, however, no record of their...
NE'ILAH – The last of the five services held on the Day of Atonement. The earliest mention of it is in the Mishnah (Ta'an. 26a), where it is said: "On three occasions the priests pronounce the benediction four times in the day, namely, at...
NEW HAMPSHIRE – One of the New England states of the United States of America, and one of the thirteen original states. Record is found as early as 1693 of one Aaron Moses of New Castle; and a local historian refers to the Moses and Abrams...
NEW JERSEY – One of the North Atlantic states and one of the thirteen original states of the United States of America. It contains the following Jewish communities:Asbury Park, with a congregation, Sons of Israel.Atlantic City, with a large...
NEW MEXICO – A territory in the western division of the United States; acquired after the war with Mexico by the treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, ratified May 30, 1848. The earliest Jewish settler in New Mexico was Jacob Spiegelberg, who went to...
NEW ORLEANS – Largest city in the state of Louisiana, which passed into the possession of the United States in 1803. Among its earliest Jewish settlers were Jacob and Judah Touro, the latter of whom fought in defense of the city, under...
NEW YORK – Chief commercial city of the state of New York and the largest city of the United States; contains a larger Jewish population than any other city in the world.History: When Jews settled in New York, about 1654, during the Dutch...
NEW YORK – Chief commercial city of the state of New York and the largest city of the United States; contains a larger Jewish population than any other city in the world.History: When Jews settled in New York, about 1654, during the Dutch...
NEW YORK – Chief commercial city of the state of New York and the largest city of the United States; contains a larger Jewish population than any other city in the world.History: When Jews settled in New York, about 1654, during the Dutch...
NEW YORK – Most populous state of the American Union, with an estimated Jewish population of 750,000. The history of the Jews of the state is practically covered by the articles New York (city), Albany, etc. Their records date back to 1654...
NEWARK – Largest city of the state of New Jersey, U. S. A. Its first Jewish congregation was founded Aug. 20, 1848, under the name "B'nai Jeshurun." Religious services were held at various places until 1858, when the first synagogue was...
NEWBURGER, JOSEPH E. – American jurist; born in New York city 1853; educated in the public schools and at Columbia College (School of Law), New York (LL.B.); admitted to the bar 1874. In 1891 he was elected judge of the city court of New York, and...
NEWMAN, LEOPOLD – American soldier. He entered in the Civil war as captain of Company B, 31st New York Infantry, and rose to the rank of lieutenant-colonel. His term of service expired a few days prior to the battle of Chancellorsville (May 2,...
NIGGUN – A Neo-Hebraic noun formed from the "pi'el" of the verb = "to play strings," "make music"; hence meaning generally "tune," "melody." In the rubrics of the Maḥzor of the northern uses "be-niggun N." heads a piyyuṭ with the...
NISHMAT – Literally, "the soul of." A part of the liturgy which on Sabbaths and festivals leads up to the short benediction ("yishtabbaḥ") after the Psalms and other Biblical poetry of the early morning service. Nishmat, together with...
NOAH, MORDECAI MANUEL – American politician, journalist, playwright, and philanthropist; born in Philadelphia, Pa., July 19, 1785; died in New York city March 22, 1851. He was of Portuguese Jewish descent; and his father took an active part in the War...