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Cyrus Adler, Ph.D.

President of the American Jewish Historical Society; Former President of the Board of Directors of the Jewish Theological Seminary of America; Assistant Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D. C.

Contributions:
NONES – American family, tracing its descent from Benjamin Nones of Philadelphia, who lived at the end of the eighteenth century.Benjamin Nones: American soldier. A native of Bordeaux, he emigrated to Philadelphia about 1777, and at...
NORDHEIMER, ISAAC – American Orientalist; born 1809 at Memelsdorf, near Erlangen, in Bavaria; died 1842. A very promising Talmudic student, he was educated successively at the rabbinical school at Presburg, then under the personal direction of the...
NORTH CAROLINA – One of the South Atlantic states of the American Union, and one of the thirteen original states. In 1826 Isaac Harby estimated that there were 400 Jews in the state. Its principal town is Wilmington, the first Jewish settlers of...
NUÑEZ (RIBIERO), SAMUEL – Marano physician of the eighteenth century; born in Lisbon. He belonged to a distinguished family in that city, and was a physician of great eminence. Although a court physician he was ultimately denounced to the Inquisition;...
NUSSBAUM, MYER – American lawyer; born in Albany, N. Y.; son of Simon and Clara Nussbaum, who went to America from Neustadt-on-the-Saale, Bavaria. He received his early education in the public schools of his native city, and afterward entered...
NUT – The rendering in the English versions of the two Hebrew words "egoz" and "boṭnim."1. "Egoz." This is mentioned once only, in Cant. vi. 11, where a nut-grove is referred to. According to the common tradition, the word designates...
OCCIDENT AND AMERICAN JEWISH ADVOCATE, THE – Periodical published in Philadelphia by Isaac Leeser. It appeared first in April, 1843, and was continued as a monthly until March, 1859, inclusive, making sixteen volumes in that form. In April, 1859, it appeared as a weekly,...
OCHS, ADOLPH SIMON – American journalist and newspaper publisher and proprietor; born March 12, 1858, at Cincinnati; educated at the common schools of Knoxville, Tenn. From 1869 to 1873 he was employed as carrier-boy and "devil" in the office of the...
OCHS, GEORGE WASHINGTON – American journalist; born in Cincinnati Oct. 20, 1861; brother of Adolph S. Ochs; educated at the University of Tennessee. Ochs began his journalistic career as a reporter on the Chattanooga "Daily Times," of which he became...
ODEKA – Initial word of Ps. cxviii. 21 (See Hallel), marking the point where the antiphony of alternate verses between two choirs comes to a conclusion (comp. Grätz, "Kritischer Commentar zu den Psalmen," pp. 74, 608, Breslau, 1882;...
OHIO – One of the North-Central States of the United States of America; admitted to the Union in 1803. Jews did not settle there until 1817, when Joseph Jonas, the pioneer, came from England and made his home in Cincinnati. He drew...
OMNAM KEN – A penitential hymn in the ritual for the eve of Atonement, according to the Polish rite. The author has been identified by Joseph Jacobs with R. Yom-Ṭob of Joigny, the rabbi and leader of the Jews who so heroically faced their...
OPPER, FREDERICK BURR – American political caricaturist; born at Madison, Lake County, Ohio, Jan. 2, 1857. He attended school until fourteen years of age and then worked for a short time in a newspaper office. In 1873 he went to New York, where,...
OREGON – One of the Northwestern States of the United States of America; admitted into the Union in 1859.First Congregation. The first Jewish settlers—in the main immigrants from various parts of southern Germany—came to Oregon from New...
OREN – A word formed by the addition of the German infinitive suffix to the Latin "ora" (="pray"). which was very familiar to every one in the Middle Ages, as it still is in Catholic countries, from its repeated use in the frequent...
ORGAN – According to Jewish authorities, the organ was one of the instruments of music in the Temple. In the Authorized Version rendering of Ps. cl. 4 the terms "stringed instruments" and "organs" used to translate the Hebrew "minnim"...
OSTERBERG, MAX – American electrical engineer; born at Frankfort-on-the-Main June 12, 1869. He accompanied his parents to America (New York) in 1884, where he entered upon a business career. In 1891 he took up the study of electricity, and...
PARASHAH – A section of the Pentateuch. The Sephardim apply the word to each of the fifty-four weekly lessons into which the Torah is divided in the one-year cycle, as well as to smaller sections; the Ashkenazim call the week's lesson a...
PARNAS – Neo-Hebraic word designating the president or the trustee of a congregation. It is found in the Targum as the equivalent of words which are interpreted as "steward" (see Isa. xxii. 15; Zech. xi. 3), and it is frequently met with...
PATERSON – Manufacturing city in the state of New Jersey; center of the silk industry in the United States. It has attracted an extensive Jewish population, which possesses three incorporated synagogues: one conservative, chiefly composed...
PEIXOTTO – American Jewish family, originally from Spain, whence members thereof migrated by way of Holland to Curaçao, in the West Indies. The original name of this family was Maduro, but while still in Spain a Maduro married a Peixotto...
PENITENTIAL DAYS – The first ten days of Tishri, beginning with the Day of Memorial (New-Year) and ending with the Day of Atonement. According to the Mishnah (R. H. i. 2) the 1st of Tishri is the great yearly day of judgment, on which all...
PENNSYLVANIA – First Mention. One of the original thirteen states of the American Union; named after William Penn, who received a grant of the territory from King Charles II. in 1681. When Peter Stuyvesant, in 1655, conquered the Swedish...
PE'OT – Side-locks worn by Jewish men, especially those of Poland and Russia. Strictly conforming themselves to the Biblical precept in Lev. xix. 27, they allowed the hair to grow on both sides of the head and to hang down in curls or...
PHILADELPHIA – Chief city of Pennsylvania, and the third, in point of population, in the United States. It is supposed that there were Jews in the neighborhood of Philadelphia at the time of the landing of William Penn, in 1682, since there...