JewishEncyclopedia.com

The unedited full-text of the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia
- Phrase search: "names of god"
- Exclude terms: "names of god" -zerah
- Volume/Page: v9 p419
- Diacritics optional: Ḥanukkah or hanukkah
- Search by Author: altruism author:Hirsch
search tips & recommendations

Cyrus Adler, Ph.D.

President of the American Jewish Historical Society; Former President of the Board of Directors of the Jewish Theological Seminary of America; Assistant Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D. C.

Contributions:
SHELIAḤ ẒIBBUR – Congregational messenger or deputy or agent. During the time of the Second Temple it was the priest who represented the congregation in offering the sacrifice, and who, before the close of the service, pronounced the priestly...
SHEMA' ḲOLI – Opening hymn of the services on the eve of Atonement in the Sephardic ritual, preceding Kol Nidre. It consists of twenty-nine distichs based on the penitential formula of the Mishnah (Ta'an. ii. 1), "May He who answered the...
SHEMONEH 'ESREH – The Three Groups. Collection of benedictions forming the second—the Shema' being the first—important section of the daily prayers at the morning ("Shaḥarit"), afternoon ("Minḥah"), and evening ("'Arbit") services, as well as of...
SHIRAH ḤADASHAH – SHIRAH ḤADASHAH A passage which illustrates the influence of the Midrash on the development of synagogal music. The Biblical prescription of circumcision as a qualification for partaking of the paschal lamb (Ex. xii. 43, 48) led...
SHOFAR – Biblical Data: The ancient ritual horn of Israel, representing, next to the 'Ugab or reeds, the oldest surviving form of wind-instrument. As a rule "shofar" is incorrectly translated "trumpet" or "cornet"; its etymology shows it...
SHOFAR – Biblical Data: The ancient ritual horn of Israel, representing, next to the 'Ugab or reeds, the oldest surviving form of wind-instrument. As a rule "shofar" is incorrectly translated "trumpet" or "cornet"; its etymology shows it...
SHOFEṬ KOL HA-AREẒ – Important Pizmon of six verses, each ending with a phrase from Num. xxviii. 23. Being signed with the acrostic "Shelomoh," it is often ascribed to Solomon ibn Gabirol; but by Zunz ("Literaturgesch." p. 312) it is attributed to...
SHOḤEṬ – SHOFEṬ KOL HA-AREẒ One empowered to perform the ritual slaughter of cattle and poultry. In the Biblical writings there is no statement to the effect that any individual was specially appointed to fulfil this function; but it...
SHOMRON ḲOL TITTEN – Dramatic elegy by Solomon ibn Gabirol, sung at the conclusion of the order of Ḳinot according to the Polish ritual, at both the evening and morning services of the Fast of Ab, and appended as a private meditation to the order of...
SHROUD – Robe in which the dead are arrayed for burial. The shroud is made of white linen cloth ("sadin," the σινδόν of the New Testament; see Matt. xxvii. 59), which is cut and sewed together with large stitches; the ends of the thread...
SHUMAN, ABRAHAM – American merchant and philanthropist; born in Prussia May 31, 1839. While still a child he accompanied his parents to the United States. The family settled in Newburgh, N. Y., where young Shuman, when not at school, worked on a...
SIDRA – Term, the original meaning of which is "order" or "arrangement," frequently used in both Talmuds to denote a section of the Bible read either in the synagogue or in the school. In the statement "Rab read a sidra before Rabbi"...
SIEGEL, HENRY – American merchant; born at Eubigheim, Germany, March 17, 1852. At the age of fifteen he emigrated to the United States and entered on a commercial career, being employed as a clerk by various firms in Washington, D. C.,...
SILBERSTEIN, SOLOMON – American philosophical writer; born at Kovno, Russia, March 10, 1845. Educated privately, he received the rabbinical diploma in 1864, and officiated from 1867 to 1868 as rabbi at Dershunisok, in the government of Kovno. Later he...
SILVA, FRANCISCO MALDONADO DE – Peruvian physician, controversial writer, and martyr; born in San Miguel, province of Tucuman, Peru, about 1592; burned at the stake in Lima Jan. 23, 1639. His father, Diego Nuñez de Silva, and his brother, Diego de Silva, were...
SILVERMAN, JOSEPH – American rabbi; born at Cincinnati, Ohio, Aug. 25, 1860. Educated at the high school, the university (A.B. 1883), and the Hebrew Union College (rabbi, 1884) of his native town, he became rabbi successively at Dallas, Texas...
SIMON, JOSEPH – American lawyer and politician; born at Bechtheim, Hesse, Feb. 7, 1851. He accompanied his parents to Portland, Ore., in 1857, when he was but six years of age. He was educated in the public schools of Portland, was admitted to...
SINGER, ISIDORE – Austrian author and editor, and originator of The Jewish Encyclopedia; born in Weisskirchen, Moravia, Nov. 10, 1859; educated in the high schools of Ungarisch-Hradisch, Kremsier, and Troppau and at the universities of Vienna...
SIWAN – Third ecclesiastical and ninth civil month. It has thirty days, and coincides, approximately, with the Roman month of June. On Siwan 3, 4, and 5 ( = "the three days of the bounds") are commemorated the three days' preparation...
SOCIETY OF AMERICAN CANTORS – Founded by Alois Kaiser in Baltimore, Md., May 14, 1895. Its object is the elevation of the cantor's profession, the furtherance of cohesion among its members, and the improvement of musical services in the synagogue. While its...
SOLOMON, EDWARD S – American soldier and jurist; born at Sleswick, Sleswick-Holstein, Dec. 25, 1836. On completing his education at the high school of his native town he emigrated to the United States and settled in Chicago, where he was elected...
SOLOMON BEN JOSEPH – French liturgist of Avallon; lived apparently in the thirteenth century. He composed the following piyyuṭim: "Abbi'ah Pil'i," a "yoẓer" for Purim; "Abbi'ah miḳreh," a "seliḥah" commemorating the massacre of Anjou in 1236, and...
SOLOMONS, ADOLPHUS SIMEON – American communal worker; born in New York city Oct. 26, 1826; son of John Solomons, a native of London who emigrated to the United States in 1810, and of Julia, daughter of Simeon Levy.Solomons was educated in the University of...
SONNESCHEIN, SOLOMON H. – American rabbi; born at Szent Marton Turocz, Hungary, June 24, 1839. He received his education at Boskowitz, Moravia, where he obtained his rabbinical diploma in 1863, and later studied at Hamburg and at the University of Jena...
SOUTH CAROLINA – One of the thirteen original states of the United States. Most of the events relating to Jews occurring in this state have been connected with the town of Charleston, and will be found treated under that caption. It is only...