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The unedited full-text of the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia
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Cyrus Adler, Ph.D.

President of the American Jewish Historical Society; Former President of the Board of Directors of the Jewish Theological Seminary of America; Assistant Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D. C.

Contributions:
SOUTH AND CENTRAL AMERICA – Certain portions of the American continent which were first colonized by the Spaniards and Portuguese, and which still remain Spanish- and Portuguese-speaking. As regards the period during which these countries were under...
SOUTH AND CENTRAL AMERICA – Certain portions of the American continent which were first colonized by the Spaniards and Portuguese, and which still remain Spanish- and Portuguese-speaking. As regards the period during which these countries were under...
SPEYER – German family doubtless deriving its name from the German city of Speyer. Members of it had settled in Frankfort-on-the-Main in the sixteenth century; from that city their descendants spread to various countries, and are now to...
SPICKER, MAX – German musician; born at Königsberg, Prussia, Aug. 16, 1858. Educated at the Conservatorium, Leipsic, he in 1878 traveled with the violinist Miska Hauser through Germany and Russia. He held the position of conductor of the opera...
SPIEGEL, FREDERICK S. – American jurist; born at Hovestadt, Westphalia, Prussia, Nov. 20, 1858. He attended the gymnasium at Paderborn, Westphalia, until his fourteenth year, when his parents emigrated to the United States, settling in Gadsden, Ala....
SPINGARN, JOEL ELIAS – American educator; born in New York city May 17, 1875. He was graduated from Columbia University in 1895, and took postgraduate courses at Harvard and Columbia universities (Ph.D. 1899). In 1899 he was appointed tutor and in the...
SPITZ, MORITZ – American rabbi; born at Csaba, Hungary, Oct. 14, 1848. He was educated at the University of Prague, and received his rabbinical diploma from Rabbi Judah Teweles of that city. From 1870 to 1871 he officiated as rabbi of...
STECKLER, ALFRED – American jurist; born in New York city Dec. 18, 1856. He was educated in the public schools of New York city and at Columbia Law School, graduated in 1877, and was admitted to the bar in the same year. In 1881 he was elected a...
STEIN, PHILIP – American jurist; born at Steele, Rhenish Prussia, March 12, 1844. He emigrated to the United States in 1854, and was educated in the public and the high school of Milwaukee, and at the University of Wisconsin, obtaining the...
STERN, LOUIS – American merchant and politician; born at Ziegenhain, Hesse-Cassel, Germany, Feb. 22, 1847. Together with his parents he emigrated to America in 1853, settling in Albany, N. Y., where he attended the public school and academy....
STERN, SIMON ADLER – American author, editor, and critic; born in Philadelphia 1838; died May 2, 1904. As a boy he displayed marked talent as a violinist, in spite of which he devoted himself more to literature. Of his works may be mentioned...
STERNE, SIMON – American lawyer; born in Philadelphia July 23, 1839; died in New York Sept. 22, 1901. He was educated in the public schools of his native city, and studied at the universities of Heidelberg (Germany) and Pennsylvania, being...
STIEGLITZ, JULIUS OSCAR – American chemist; born at Hoboken, N. J., May 26, 1867; educated in the public schools of New York, the real-gymnasium of Carlsruhe, and the universities of Berlin and Göttingen. Shortly after his return to the United States he...
STRAUS – American family, originally from Otterberg, in the Rhenish Palatinate. The earliest member known was one Lazarus, born in the first half of the eighteenth century, whose son Jacob Lazarus was known also as Jacques Lazare....
STROUSE, MYER (MEYER STRAUSS) – American lawyer and politician; born in Germany Dec. 16, 1825. In 1832 his parents emigrated to the United States and settled in Pottsville, Pa. He studied law, and after he had been admitted to the bar founded (1848) the "North...
SULZBACHER, LOUIS – American jurist; born in the Rhenish Palatinate, Germany, May 10, 1842. He was educated in Germany, but later emigrated to the United States, and in 1900 was appointed judge of the Supreme Court of Porto Rico, which position he...
SUTRO, ADOLPH HEINRICH JOSEPH – Süsskind of Trimberg Before Church Dignitaries.(From a thirteenth-century manuscript.)American mechanical engineer; born at Aix-la-Chapelle, Rhenish Prussia, April 29, 1830; died at San Francisco Aug. 8, 1898; educated in his...
SUTRO, THEODORE – American lawyer; born at Aix-la-Chapelle, Prussia, March 14, 1845. When only five years of age he emigrated with his parents to the United States, and was educated at Harvard University, from which he graduated in 1871, and in...
SYRACUSE – City in the state of New York; situated on Lake Onondaga. The first settlement of Jews in Syracuse dates back to 1839, when the warehouse of Bernheim & Block served as a meeting-place for Jewish traders from neighboring cities...
SZOLD, BENJAMIN – American rabbi and scholar; a leader of the conservative wing of the Reform movement in America; born at Nemiskert, county of Neutra, Hungary, Nov. 15, 1829; died at Berkeley Springs, W. Va., July 31, 1902. He studied under...
TAUSSIG, EDWARD DAVID – American naval officer; born at St. Louis, Mo., Nov. 20, 1847. Educated at the public schools of his native city, he entered the United States Naval Academy at Annapolis in 1863, graduating in 1867, since which date he has been...
TENNESSEE – One of the Southern States of the American Union; admitted in 1796—the third after the incorporation of the original thirteen; seceded June 18, 1861; readmitted in 1866. A few Jews were among a number of traders who settled near...
TEXAS – Largest state in the American Union; admitted in 1845; seceded Feb. 1, 1861; and readmitted in 1870. Previous to its admission to the Union, Texas was an independent republic (1836-45).Early Settlement and Mexican War. Samuel...
THOMASHEFSKI, BORIS – Judæo-German actor; born at Kiev May 30, 1866. He went to New York to seek work in 1881 and soon organized a Jewish troop which played in Turn Hall, Fourth street. Three years later he removed to Chicago, where he became a...
TORONTO – Canadian city; capital of the province of Ontario. Toronto possesses four regularly organized Jewish congregations, the oldest being the Holy Blossom congregation, which had its beginnings in 1845, though it was not formally...