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Cyrus Adler, Ph.D.

President of the American Jewish Historical Society; Former President of the Board of Directors of the Jewish Theological Seminary of America; Assistant Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D. C.

Contributions:
TRADE-UNIONISM – In Diamond and Cigar Trades. —In England: Excepting in Holland, the creation of a Jewish proletariat has everywhere followed immigration from the east-European centers, where the massing of population gradually led to the...
TRAUBEL, HORACE – American editor; born at Camden, N. J., Dec. 19, 1858; educated in the public schools of his native town. In 1892 he was appointed, jointly with Richard Maurice Buckle and Thomas B. Harned, literary executor of Walt Whitman; he...
TREBINO (TREMINO) DE SOBREMONTE, TOMAS – Martyr; burned at the stake at Mexico, or Lima, April 11, 1649. He had previously been reconciled by the Inquisition; but in 1642, during the trial of Gabriel de Granada, information was brought against him and his wife, Maria...
TRUMBULL, HENRY CLAY – American Christian Orientalist; born at Stonington, Conn., June 8, 1830; died at Philadelphia Dec. 8, 1903. He was educated at Williston Seminary, Mass., and took up Sunday-school work, becoming in 1858 state missionary of the...
TRUMPET – In Shab. 36a (comp. Suk. 34a) it is noted that since the destruction of the Temple the names for the shofar and the trumpet had been confused. The same complaint may be made against the Septuagint, which generally renders the...
U-BA LE-ẒIYYON – Opening words of the closing prayer of the daily morning service, before which one should not leave the synagogue (Shulḥan 'Aruk, Oraḥ Ḥayyim, 132). The prayer consists of a series of texts, in which are included the Ḳedushshah...
ULMANN, ALBERT – American banker and author; born in New York city July 2, 1861; educated in the public schools and at the College of the City of New York. In 1900 he became a member of the New York Stock Exchange firm of J. H. Sulzbacher. He is...
UNITED STATES – A federal republic of North America. The history and condition of the Jews in this territory—apart from Russia and Austria the largest concourse of Israelites under one government in the world—is treated, for convenience, under...
URANIA – Daughter of Abraham the Precentor, of Worms, who herself acted as precentor in the women's synagogue in that city before 1275. See Sagerin.A. F. L. C.
UTAH – One of the Western States of the United States of America; admitted into the Union in 1896. Jews first settled in Utah about 1860, among the earliest comers being Isidor Morris, Nicholas S. Ransohoff, Samuel Kahn, Fred Auerbach,...
VEIL – A cover for the face; a disguise. From the earliest times it has been a sign of chastity and decency in married women to cover their faces with veils in the presence of strangers. This custom is still in vogue in the Orient. The...
VIRGINIA – One of the Middle Atlantic states and one of the thirteen original states of the United States of America; seceded from the Union April 17, 1861; readmitted 1870. As early as 1624 the names of Elias Lagardo, Joseph Moise, and...
VOORSANGER, JACOB – American rabbi; born at Amsterdam, Holland, Nov. 13, 1852. He was educated at the Jewish Theological Seminary of Amsterdam, and received the degree of D.D. from the Hebrew Union College, Cincinnati, O. He has officiated as rabbi...
WA-ANI TEFILLATI – The introduction to the reading of the lesson before the afternoon prayer on the Sabbath. Among the Ashkenazim it is chanted by the ḥazzan to the prayer-motive of the service (see Music, Synagogal) like U-Ba le-Ẓiyyon, which it...
WACHNACHT – The Judæo-German term for the night preceding the day of circumcision, spent in feasting and the recitation of hymns and prayers by the mohel, sandik, and members of the family. The ostensible object of the watch is to ward off...
WASHINGTON – The extreme northwestern state on the Pacific coast, United States of America; originally a part of Oregon, but admitted to the Union in 1889. The first Jewish pioneers probably went to Washington about 1860, either from...
WASHINGTON, D. C. – Capital of the United States; situated in the District of Columbia, on the Potomac River. In 1849 there were in Washington six Jews, who were engaged in business on Pennsylvania avenue, and who went to Baltimore for the...
WAYEHI 'EREB – One of the "nedarim," or special declamatory variations from the strict Cantillation of the Pentateuch, according to the Northern use. This chant is introduced into the reading which reopens the yearly cycle of pericopes on the...
WAYEKULLU – The concluding verses of the story of Creation, deemed from Talmudic times an essential portion of the prayers for Friday night, as the eve of the Sabbath (Shab. 119b). While the whole congregation remained standing (Shulḥan...
WE-'AL KULLOM – The brief prayer which interrupts and divides into three sections the longer confession of sins enumerated in alphabetical order (see 'Al Ḥeṭ) in the prayers of the Day of Atonement. The traditional melody presents many variants...
WEILLER, PAULINE – American pianist; born in Stuttgart April 22, 1839; died in Baltimore, Md., Dec. 28, 1874; eldest daughter of Moritz Eichberg, cantor in Stuttgart. The Eichberg daughters, of whom there were five, inherited musical talent from...
WE-SHAMERU – WE-SHAMERU (Ex. xxxi. 16, 17) Quotation from the Pentateuch, recited before the "'Amidah" in the Sabbath evening service, and repeated in the domestic Ḳiddush on Sabbath morning after service. Nowadays it is usually chanted in a...
WEST VIRGINIA – One of the east-central states of the American Union; formerly part of Virginia; made a separate state on June 19, 1863. While individual Jews went farther West as early as 1825, there seem to have been no communities before...
WEYL, MAX – American painter; born at Mühlen, Württemberg, in 1840. At the age of fifteen he went to the United States, but returned to Europe to study art. His home is now (1905) in Washington, D. C., where he is a member of the Society of...
WEYL, WALTER EDWARD – American economist; born at Philadelphia, Pa., March 11, 1874. He was educated in the public schools of his native city and the University of Pennsylvania (Ph.B. 1892; Ph.D. 1897), and took postgraduate courses at the...