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The unedited full-text of the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia
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Cyrus Adler, Ph.D.

President of the American Jewish Historical Society; Former President of the Board of Directors of the Jewish Theological Seminary of America; Assistant Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D. C.

Contributions:
WIENER, LEO – American philologist; born at Byelostok, Grodno, Russia, July 27, 1862; studied in the gymnasia of Minsk and Warsaw, in the University of Warsaw, and in the Polytechnic of Berlin. Emigrating to the United States, he had for...
WIERNIK, PETER – Russo-American journalist; born at Wilna, Russia, in March, 1865. He received the customary Jewish education. From 1878 to 1882 he was in Riga; in 1882 he lived at Kovno; and in the following year he joined his parents at...
WIG – A covering for the head, consisting of false hair interwoven with or united to a kind of cap or netting. Wearing false hair on the head to supplement a scanty natural supply, or as an adornment, appears to have been a common...
WILCZYNSKI, ERNEST JULIUS – American mathematician; born in Hamburg, Germany, Nov. 13, 1876. He went with his parents in 1885 to America, where he attended the Chicago high school. Returning to Germany in 1893, he studied astronomy and mathematics at the...
WILENKIN, GREGORY – Russian government official; born at Tsarskoye-Selo, near St. Petersburg, Russia, Feb. 22, 1864. He is a member of an ancient Russian Jewish family which has held landed estates for the last two centuries, and he counts among...
WILKESBARRE – County-seat and principal city of Luzerne county, Pa. Evidence points to 1838 as the date of arrival of the first Jewish settlers, among whom Martin Long, a Bavarian, was the most prominent. Two years later a society was...
WINKLER, MAX – American philologist; born at Cracow, Austria, Sept. 4, 1866; educated at the gymnasium of Cracow, Hughes High School (Cincinnati, Ohio), Harvard University (A. B. 1889), and the University of Michigan (Ph.D. 1892). He took a...
WISE, AARON – American rabbi; born at Erlau, Hungary, May 2, 1844; died in New York March 30, 1896; son of Chief Rabbi Joseph Hirsch Weiss. He was educated in the Talmudic schools of Hungary, including the seminary at Eisenstadt, where he...
WISE, ISAAC MAYER – American Reform rabbi, editor, and author; born at Steingrub, Bohemia, March 29, 1819; died at Cincinnati, Ohio, March 26, 1900. He was the son of Leo Wise, a school-teacher, and received his early Hebrew education from his...
WISE, LEO – American journalist and publisher; born at Albany Oct. 28, 1849; son of Isaac Mayer Wise. He was educated at St. Xavier College and Farmers College, Cincinnati; College Hill, Ohio; Trinity College, Hartford; and the University...
WISE, STEPHEN SAMUEL – American rabbi; born at Budapest March 17, 1862; son of Aaron Wise. He studied at the College of the City of New York (1887-91), Columbia College (B.A. 1892), and Columbia University (Ph.D. 1901), and later pursued rabbinical...
WOLF, ADOLPH GRANT – American jurist; born at Washington, D. C., Jan. 11, 1869; educated at Johns Hopkins University (A.B. 1890) and at the George Washington (formerly Columbian) University of Washington, D. C. (LL.B. 1892; LL.M. 1893). He was...
WOLF, EMMA – American authoress; born June 15, 1865, in San Francisco, Cal., to which city her parents had migrated from France, and where she received her education. In addition to several short stories, which appeared in various American...
WOLFENSTEIN, MARTHA – American authoress; born at Insterburg, Prussia, Aug. 5, 1869. During her infancy her parents emigrated to the United States, settling in Cleveland, Ohio, in the public schools of which city she received her education.Martha...
WOODBINE – Early Development. Borough in Cape May county, New Jersey; established as an industrial village Aug. 28, 1891; incorporated as a borough in April, 1903. It is situated on a tract of land which originally comprised 5,300 acres,...
WOOLF, ALBERT EDWARD – American chemist and inventor; born in New York Sept. 26, 1846; educated in the public schools of that city and at the College of the City of New York. Among Woolf's achievements may be mentioned: the introduction of peroxid of...
WOOLF, EDWARD – American musician and novelist; born in London, England, Sept., 1803; died in New York March 14, 1882. After acting as a musical conductor in his native city, he emigrated (1839) to New York, where his abilities were soon...
WÜRZBURGER, JULIUS – American journalist; born in Bayreuth, Germany, 1819; died in New York city Sept. 14, 1876; studied at the University of Erlangen. In 1848, the year of the revolution, he was editor of the "Bayreuth Tageblatt." Removing to...
YA'ALEH – The introductory hymn prefixed to the seliḥot which follow the evening service proper of the Day of Atonement (comp. Kol Nidre) in the northern rituals. The author of the hymn has not been identified with certainty. It consists...
YAH SHIMEKA – YAH SHIMEKA Hymn of five long stanzas which forms the introduction to the Ḳaddish before "Bareku" in the morning service of the second day of New-Year in the ritual of the Sephardim; it is signed with the acrostic "Yehudah," and...
YIGDAL – The hymn which in the various rituals shares with Adon 'Olam the place of honor at the opening of the morning and the close of the evening service. It is based on the thirteen Articles of Faith (usually called the Thirteen...
YIMLOK ADONAI – The tenth and final verse of Ps. cxlvi., which opens the series of HalleluiahPsalms that conclude the Psalter. The verse is employed as a response at prominent points in the liturgy, and is always the concluding response in the...
YISHAR KOḤEKA – A frequent exclamation and expression of thanks. The first part of the formula is derived by Levy and Kohut from "yashar" = "to be firm or healthy." The phrase occurs in the Talmud in the Hebrew form "yishar koḥeka" (Shab. 87a)...
YISRAEL NOSHA' – YISRAEL NOSHA' A hymn composed by an early medieval writer named Shephatiah (Zunz, "Literaturgesch." p. 235), and forming the pizmon, or chief responsory verses, in the seliḥot of one of the mornings in the week preceding the...
YOẒEROT – The collective name for the piyyuṭim introduced in the recitation of the morning service on the festivals and on special Sabbaths throughout the year in the Northern rituals (see Zunz, "S. P." passim). These hymns are termed...