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The unedited full-text of the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia
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A. M. Friedenberg, B.S., LL.B.

Counselor at Law, New York City.

Contributions:
FISCHELL, A. – Rabbi and historian; lived in the city of New York in the middle of the nineteenth century. He was for some time an assistant to Dr. Raphall, minister of the Shearith Israel congregation. Concerning Fischell, whose name is also...
FOLZ, HANS – German playwright and physician of the fifteenth century; said to have been bornin Worms. He is mentioned as "Hans Falz zu Nurmberk balbirer." Folz wrote numerous farces and "Fastnachtspiele" (Shrove Tuesday dramas), and...
FRANKENBERG, ABRAHAM VON – German mystic of the seventeenth century; friend and correspondent of Manasseh ben Israel. He was a nobleman and the most influential personage in the district of Oels in Silesia. A disciple of Jacob Böhme, he said: "The true...
FREDERICK II – King of Prussia; born 1712; reigned from 1740 till his death in 1786. He was not friendly to the Jews, although he issued a "Schutzjude" patent to Moses Mendelssohn in October, 1763.The "General-privilegium", 1750. During the...
FREIHEIM, J. B. – American lawyer and soldier; born in Bavaria 1848; died at Camden, Ark., Aug. 22, 1899. Freiheim was an early Jewish resident of Louisiana, where he was reared. He studied at the Louisiana State Military Academy, and at the...
FRIES, JAKOB FRIEDRICH – Christian writer against the Jews; born at Barby, Saxony, Aug. 23, 1773; died at Jena Aug. 10, 1843. In 1801 Fries lectured on philosophy at the University of Jena, and in 1805 was appointed professor of philosophy, and in 1812...
FÜRSTENTHAL, JOHANN AUGUST L. – German jurisconsult of the first half of the nineteenth century; a brother of Jacob Raphael Fürstenthal. He embraced Christianity. He was the author of numerous works and monographs on Roman and commercial law, and jurisprudence...
GERHARD, FRIEDRICH – German Christian writer against the Jews; born in Frankfort-on-the-Main Jan. 2, 1779; died there Oct. 30, 1862. He was a Lutheran clergyman at Frankfort and a writer on theological subjects. For a time he edited "Der...
GRAES, ORTUIN DE – Anti-Jewish writer of the sixteenth century; born at Holtwick in Westphalia in 1491; died at Cologne May 21, 1542. He was the son of a priest, and became one of the chiefs of the Dominican party in Cologne. Ortuin was a rabid...
GREENHUT, JOSEPH B. – American soldier; born in Germany. He enlisted as a private in the 12th Illinois Infantry at Chicago April, 1861. He served with this regiment throughout Grant's campaigns in Kentucky and Tennessee. At Fort Donelson, Greenhut...
GUTTMANN, JAKOB – Hungarian sculptor; born in Arad 1811; died in Vienna April 28, 1860. In his early childhood he carved toys, and in 1833 went to Vienna to satisfy his artistic cravings. Here he became an engraver, and worked for three years...
HEBREW LEADER, THE – Weekly newspaper; published in New York city by Jonas Bondy, who edited it. The first number was issued in May, 1850, and the last on Dec. 8, 1882. Its theological position was conservative. A distinct feature of the paper was...
HEBREW OBSERVER, THE – Periodical; published in London by Abraham Benisch. The first and only number appeared Jan. 7, 1853.G. A. M. F.
HEBREW REVIEW, THE – Literary magazine; published at Cincinnati, Ohio, during the years 1881 and 1892 (2 vols.) by the Rabbinical Literary Association of America. The president of the association, Dr. Max Lilienthal, and after his decease the...
HEBREW REVIEW AND MAGAZINE OF RABBINICAL LITERATURE, THE – Journal; published in London by Morris Jacob Raphail from Oct. 3, 1834, to and including Sept., 1835 (2 vols.). The object of the magazine was to foster the study of rabbinical literature.G. A. M. F.
HEBREW STANDARD, THE – Weekly; founded in New York city by J. P. Solomon on Sept. 23, 1881. Solomon has been its sole editor and proprietor. The paper is strongly conservative and of Orthodox tendencies, and has always taken a definite political...
HEBREW UNION COLLEGE JOURNAL – Monthly magazine, edited and published by students of Hebrew Union College, Cincinnati, Ohio, in the interests of that institution. The first number appeared in October, 1896. It publishes articles on Jewish literary subjects,...
HEYDENFELDT, SOLOMON – American jurist; born in Charleston, S. C., 1816; died at San Francisco Sept. 15, 1890. When twenty-one years old he left South Carolina for Alabama, where he was admitted to the bar and practised law for a number of years in...
ILIOWIZI, HENRY – American rabbi and author; born in Choinick, in the government of Minsk, Russia, Jan. 2, 1850. His father was affiliated with the Ḥasidim. Iliowizi was educated at first in the local ḥeder, afterward at the yeshibah of Vietka,...
ISRAELIT, DER – Biweekly periodical published in Galicia since 1868. It is the organ of the Shomer Yisrael Association of Lemberg, of which its editorial staff are members; and it represents the liberal and progressive element of the Galician...
ISRAELIT, DER – Formerly, a weekly, now a semiweekly journal published at Mayence, Germany. It was founded in 1860 by M. Lehmann and edited by him up to his decease. Since that time Oskar Lehmann has been the editor. Valuable literary...
ISRAELIT DES NEUNZEHNTEN JAHRHUNDERTS, DER – Periodical published in Germany in the first half of the nineteeth century. It first appeared, from Oct., 1839, up to Oct., 1841, as a monthly in Meiningen. It was then enlarged and issued weekly in Herzfeld from 1842 to June,...
ISRAELITISCHE ANNALEN – Weekly journal; published in Frankfort-on-the-Main. The first number appeared Jan. 4, 1839; it discontinued publication Dec. 24, 1841. The well-known historian Isaac Marcus Jost was its editor. The journal printed Jewish news...
ISRAELITISCHE SCHUL- UND PREDIGERMAGAZIN – Monthly periodical, published in Magdeburg by Ludwig Philippson. It first appeared in 1834, and continued up to the end of 1836. It was the precursor of the "Allgemeine Zeitung des Judenthums," and contained articles of...
ISRAELITISCHE VOLKSLEHRER – Monthly, published at Frankfort-on-the-Main. It was founded in 1851, and continued to 1862. It was edited by Leopold Stein; in its last years S. Süss-kind, the publisher of the feuilletonistic family journal "Der Freitagabend,"...