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The unedited full-text of the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia
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A. Porter,

(Office Editor), Formerly Associate Editor of "The Forum," New York; Revising Editor of "Standard Cyclopedia"; New York City.

Contributions:
ALTSCHUL, ALTSCHULER, ALTSCHUELER – Various forms of a family name borne by Ashkenazic Jews in many countries. Though each of these forms now represents groups that are distinct from one another, and that, apparently, are not interconnected by ties of...
ARIAS MONTANUS (BENEDICTUS) – Spanish priest and Orientalist; born in 1527 at Freseenal, Estremadura; died 1598 at Seville. Philip II. entrusted him with the editing of the Polyglot Bible which was printed in Antwerp (1568-1572) under the title, "Biblia...
AZULAI, AZULAY – A family descended from Spanish exiles who, after the expulsion of the Jews from Spain in 1492, settled in the city of Fez, Morocco. Ḥayyim Joseph David Azulai (see No. 4) derives the family name from the initials of the Hebrew...
BOLAFFIO, LUIGI FILIPPO – Italian journalist and publisher; born in Venice 1846, died at Milan 1901. While he was still a youth his parents moved to Genoa, and there Bolaffio founded "La Favilla," a literary magazine. He returned to Venice in 1866 and...
BOTON – Spanish family, which immigrated to Salonica, Turkey, in 1492, and which has produced many eminent rabbis and Talmudists. Jews bearing the name are still to be found in Constantinople, Salonica, Safed, and other cities of the...
CASSEL, HARTWIG – Journalist and chess editor; born Nov. 2, 1850, at Konitz, West Prussia, where his father, Dr. Aaron Cassel, was rabbi. He was educated at the Real-Gymnasium in Landsberg on-the-Warta, and in 1879 went to England, where he began...
CHAPMAN, JOHN – English educationist and communal worker; born 1845. Educated at Jews' College, London, he became an assistant master in that institution, and was subsequently appointed head master of the Jews' Hospital and Orphan Asylum. He...
CHESS – A game of skill, usually played by two persons, with sixteen pieces each, on a board divided into sixty-four squares alternately light and dark. Authoritative opinions agree that chess, under the Sanskrit name of "chaturanga" (=...
COHEN, JULES EMILE DAVID – French composer; born at Marseilles Nov. 2, 1830; died in Paris Jan., 1901; studied at the Paris Conservatoire, under Zimmerman, Marmontel, Benoist, and Halévy, from 1847 to 1854, gaining first prizes in pianoforte, organ,...
CZESTIONEV – Village in the government of Warsaw, Russian Poland. It is the seat of a Jewish agricultural college, which was completed in 1901, accommodation being provided for sixty students. The college lands comprise 1,630 acres, 1,090 of...
CZYNSKI, JAN (JEAN) – Polish lawyer, author, and journalist; born June 20, 1801; died in London, England, Jan. 31, 1867. The son of Jewish parents who had embraced Roman Catholicism before his birth, Czynski was throughout his entire life one of the...
DENARIUS – Roman silver coin, which derived its name from its being at first equal to ten asses; later this number was increased to sixteen. From the second century B.C. it was the chief silver coin of the commonwealth, and under the...
ENGLISCH, BERTHOLD – Austrian chess-player; born 1851 at Hotzenplotz, Austrian Silesia; died Oct. 19, 1897, in Vienna. In 1879 he gained the first prize at the Leipsic tournament; in 1883 he was fourth in the London tourney; in 1887 in the...
FINN, JULIUS – Russian - American chess-player; born April 28, 1871, at Vladislavovo, government of Suwalki, Russian Poland; emigrated to the United States in 1887. At a tournament played in the city of New York November, 1895, he won...
GABRILOVITCH, OSSIP – Russian pianist; born in St. Petersburg Feb. 7, 1878. When only four years old he evinced a remarkable talent for music, and before he had reached the age of ten he entered the St. Petersburg Conservatorium, his first master...
GOLDSCHMIDT, OTTO – German pianist and composer; born at Hamburg Aug. 21, 1829. He studied under Jacob Schmidt and F. W. Grund; with Hans von Bülow under Mendelssohn at the Leipsic Conservatorium; and in 1848 under Chopin in Paris. In 1849 he...
GUNSBERG, ISIDOR – English merchant and chess-master; born in Budapest Nov. 2, 1854. When nine years old he went to England, in which country he has since resided, competing in numerous chess tournaments as an English representative. In 1885 he...
HANBURY, LILY – English actress; educated in London, where she is still (1903) residing. Her début was made in 1888 at a revival of W. S. Gilbert's "Pygmalion and Galatea" at the Savoy Theater in that city. She has since appeared on most of the...
HARRWITZ, DANIEL – German chess master; born 1823 in Breslau, Silesia; died Jan. 9, 1884, at Botzen, Tyrol; received most of his chess-training from Anderssen. Harrwitz lived for some time in France, and at intervals in England. His chess career...
HARTOG, EDOUARD DE – Dutch composer; born in Amsterdam Aug. 15, 1826; studied under Bartelmann, Döhler, Mme. Dulcken, and Hoch; subsequently with Elwart and Litolff, and still later with Heinze and Damcke. In 1852 he settled in Paris, where he...
HASSLER, SIMON – American musician; born in Bavaria July 25, 1832; died in Philadelphia, Pa., Jan. 25, 1901; son of Henry Hassler, also a musician, who, with his family, emigrated to the United States in 1842. Simon received a sound musical...
HELD, ANNA – French comedienne; born Sept. 19, 1880, in Paris; educated at Fontainebleau. Her début was made in "Miss Helyett" at the Folies Manguy, Paris, Sept. 19, 1895. Since then she has appeared in many plays, her most successful parts...
HENSCHEL, GEORG (ISIDOR) – German composer and barytone singer; born Feb. 18, 1850, at Breslau, where he studied with Wandelt and Schäffer. He made his first appearance as a pianist at twelve years of age. At the Leipsic Conservatorium (1867-70) he was a...
HIRSCHFELD, ROBERT – Austrian writer on music; born Sept. 17, 1857, in Moravia; educated at the universities of Breslau and Vienna. He also studied at the Conservatorium of the latter city, in which institution he was lecturer from 1882 till 1884,...
HOFFER, LEOPOLD – Journalist and chess editor; born 1842, in Budapest. He removed to France about 1866, and began to play chess in Paris. In 1870 he settled in London, where he has since resided. Hoffer has become widely known as a writer on...