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LOM (LOM-PALANK) – Town in Bulgaria, situated at the mouth of the River Lom. It has a population of about 8,000, of which approximately 700 are Jews, chiefly artisans and traders in grain. On March 20, 1904, a riot broke out against the Jews in...
LUBLINSKY, SOLOMON – German journalist and writer; born at Johannisberg, Prussia, Feb. 18,1868. He was occupied for a time as a clerk in a second-hand bookstore at Venice, after which he engaged in journalism at Berlin. He is now (1904) among the...
MAPU, ABRAHAM – Russian Hebrew novelist; born near Kovno Jan. 10, 1808; died at Königsberg Oct. 9, 1867. Mapu introduced the novel into Hebrew literature. His early education in Bible and Talmud was received at the ḥeder, on leaving which, at...
MARGOLIOTH – Polish family of Talmudic scholars that traces its descent from Rashi, on the one side, and from the families of Shor and Samuel Edels on the other. The first Margolioth known was Samuel, dayyan at Posen about 1550; one of his...
MARGOLIOTH – Polish family of Talmudic scholars that traces its descent from Rashi, on the one side, and from the families of Shor and Samuel Edels on the other. The first Margolioth known was Samuel, dayyan at Posen about 1550; one of his...
MARGOLIOTH – Polish family of Talmudic scholars that traces its descent from Rashi, on the one side, and from the families of Shor and Samuel Edels on the other. The first Margolioth known was Samuel, dayyan at Posen about 1550; one of his...
MARGOLIOTH – Polish family of Talmudic scholars that traces its descent from Rashi, on the one side, and from the families of Shor and Samuel Edels on the other. The first Margolioth known was Samuel, dayyan at Posen about 1550; one of his...
MARIAMPOL – Town situated in the government of Suwalki, Russian Poland. The Jewish community there, like the town itself, is of comparatively recent date. At first the community was dependent, in communal affairs, upon the neighboring town...
MASSEL, JOSEPH – Russian Jewish Hebraist; born at Ujasin, government of Wilna, 1850. He emigrated to England in the nineties and settled at Manchester, where he opened a printing and publishing office. Massel has translated and published the...
MEÏR. B. SAMUEL OF SCZEBRSZYN – Hebrew author of the seventeenth century. In the disastrous years of 1648-49 he lived at Sczebrszyn, Russian Poland, an honored member of the community, whence he escaped, on its invasion by the Cossacks, to Cracow; there he...
MEISACH, JOSHUA – Russian Hebrew author; born at Sadi, government of Kovno, 1848. Meisach has written and edited over one hundred works in Yiddish and Hebrew. He began his literary career in 1861 with the weekly "Ha-Karmel," since which year he...
MEḲIẒE NIRDAMIM – International society for the publication of old Hebrew books and manuscripts. It was established first at Lyck, Germany, in 1864, under the direction of Rabbi Nathan Adler, Sir Moses Montefiore, and Joseph Zedner (London),...
MENAHEM B. JOSEPH B. ḤIYYA – Gaon of Pumbedita 858-860. He was probably elected to the office of gaon rather on account of his father than for his own merit. He had a rival in the gaon Mar Mattithiah b. Rabbi, his superior in Talmudic lore, between whom and...
MENAHEM BEN ẒEBI – German rabbi; died at Posen(?) in 1724. He was the pupil of R. Heschel and of Aaron Samuel Kaidanover (author of "Birkat ha-Zebaḥ"). He wrote: "Ẓinẓenet Menaḥem" (Berlin, 1719), an elucidation of difficult passages in the...
MENDELSON, MORRITZ EMANUILOVICH – Polish physiologist and physician; born at Warsaw 1855. He studied medicine at the University of Warsaw, and received his doctor's degree from the University of Kharkov in 1884. From 1876 to 1887 he worked in various...
MENDLIN, JACOB WOLF – Russian Hebrew economist; born at Moghilef-on-the-Dnieper 1842. He was the first of the Hebrew writers to treat of economic questions in their application to the condition of the Jewish masses in Russia. About 1862 he went to...
MERECH – Russian town in the government of Wilna. The earliest mention of Jews there is dated 1539, when a dispute was adjudicated (July 8) between a Jew named Konyuk and a Christian in regard to a debt of the former. In 1551 the Jews of...
MESHA (Me'asha) – Palestinian amora; lived in the third century at Lydda, in Judea. He seems to have lost his parents when a child, for he was brought up by his grandfather, the eminent haggadist Joshua b. Levi. At an early age he displayed fine...
MESHERSHAYA BAR PAḲOD – Babylonian amora of the sixth and last generation; lived in Sura. In the persecution of Jews by Perozes (Firuz), King of Persia, Meshershaya was imprisoned and executed together with Amemar bar Mar Yanḳaï and the exilarch Huna...
MOSES B. BENJAMIN WOLF – Polish physician; flourished at Kalisz in the second half of the seventeenth century. He wrote in Yiddish two medical works: (1) "Yerushat Mosheh" (Frankfort-on-the-Main, 1677); and (2) "Yarim Mosheh" (ib. and Amsterdam, 1679),...
MOSESSOHN (MARKEL), MIRIAM – Russian-Hebrew authoress; born at Kovno 1841. At the age of thirteen she removed with her parents to Suwalki, where she continued her Hebrew studies under the Hebraist Paradiesthal, devoting herself at the same time to the...
NADSON, SIMON YAKOVLEVICH – Russian poet; born at St. Petersburg Dec. 26, 1862; died at Yalta Dec. 31, 1886. His father was a Jew who had entered the Greek Orthodox Church; his mother, Antonina Stepanovna, was a poetess and a member of a noble family. He...
NAḤMAN B. SIMḤAH OF BRATZLAV – Founder of the Ḥasidic sect known as "Bratzlaver Ḥasidim"; born at Miedzyboz (Medzhibozh), Podolia, Oct. 9, 1770; died at Uman 1811. His father was a grandson of Ba'al Shem-Ṭob and of R. Naḥman Horodenker. Naḥman b. Simḥah...
NAHUM THE MEDE – Tanna of the first generation (first century); lived in Jerusalem. According to R. Nathan, he was one of the three most renowned "dayyane gezelot" (criminal judges) in Jerusalem (Ket. 105a; Yer. Ket. xiii. 1; Frankel, "Darke...
NAPHTALI BEN DAVID – Hebrew author; born at Witzenhausen, Germany; lived in Amsterdam at the beginning of the eighteenth century. He belonged to the family of R. Moses Isserles. Naphtali was a distinguished Talmudical scholar and enjoyed great fame...