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NAPHTALI B. ISAAC HA-KOHEN – Polish-German rabbi; born in Ostrov, Poland, 1649; died at Constantinople 1719. His father was rabbi of Ostrov. In 1663 Naphtali was taken prisoner by the Tatars when they invaded Poland, but he managed to effect his escape....
NATAF, ISAAC B. SOLOMON – Rabbi at Tunis, Africa, at the end of the eighteenth and in the beginning of the nineteenth century. He was the author of "U-Shebu'ato le-Yiẓḥaḳ" (Leghorn, 1820), a work on twenty different sorts of oaths and their obligations...
NATHAN – Palestinian tanna of the third generation (2d cent.); son of a Babylonian exilarch. For some unknown reason he left Babylonia and his bright prospects there for Palestine, where he was made chief of the school at Usha (Hor. 13b;...
NATHAN BEN MACHIR – French Talumdist of the eleventh century. He was the brother of the liturgical poet Menahem b. Machir, to whom he gave responsa on halakic questions ("Shibbole ha-Leḳeṭ," § 290), and a cousin of R. Isaac b. Judah. He was the...
NATHANSON, BERNHARD – Russian-Hebrew journalist and author; born at Satanow, Podolia, April 15, 1832. He received his early Hebrew education under J. Z. Polichinetzki, author of "Ḳero Miḳra," and then under the supervision of his own father. After...
NATHANSON, JACOB – Polish professor of chemistry; born at Warsaw 1832; died there Sept. 14, 1884; educated at the University of Dorpat. In 1862 he was appointed professor of chemistry at the academy Szkola Glawna at Warsaw, where he remained until...
NATHANSON, JOSEPH SAUL – Polish rabbi and author; born at Berzan 1808; died at Lemberg March 4, 1875; son of Aryeh Lebush Nathanson, rabbi at Berzan and author of "Bet El." He pursued his Talmudic studies at Lemberg in company with his brother-in-law R....
NATHANSON, MARCUS – Russian scholar; born at Wilna 1793; died at Telsh, government of Kovno, June 10, 1868. He was the son-in-law of Joshua Zeitels. Nathanson devoted himself to the study of ancient Hebrew literature, publishing the following...
NAUMBURG, JACOB – Rabbi of Mayence and Offenbach at the end of the eighteenth century. He was the grandson of Jonah Te'omim, the author of "Ḳiḳayon de-Yonah." Naumburg wrote: "Naḥalat Ya'aḳob," commentary on the smaller tractates (Fürth, 1793);...
NEMIROV – Massacre in Cossacks' Uprising. Town in the government of Podolia, Russian Poland. Of the period before 1648 it is only known that Nemirov was one of the great centers of Jewish learning in Podolia and that its rabbis were men...
NEUMANN, ABRAHAM – Russian rabbi; born at Gerolzhofen, near Würzburg, 1809; died at St. Petersburg Aug. 22, 1875. In 1822 he studied Talmud at the yeshibah of Fürth and in 1828 began the study of theology at the University of Würzburg, later...
NEUMANOVITZ, NAPHTALI HERZ – Russian author; born at Jozefow, government of Lublin, Feb. 12, 1843; died at Warsaw, March 11, 1898. He was descended from a family distinguished for secular as well as Talmudic scholarship. When eighteen he went to Lublin, and...
NOTOVICH, OSIP KONSTANTINOVICH – Russian journalist; born in 1849 at Kertch, where his father was rabbi. Notovich studied law at the University of St. Petersburg. During 1873-74 he was publisher and editor of the Russian daily "Novoe Vremya"; after surrendering...
OLSCHWANG (LEVIN), JACOB SOLOMON – Russian Hebraist; born at Kokhanovo, government of Moghilef, May 4, 1840; died at Yekaterinoslav Jan. 17, 1896. He was a descendant of David Conforte, the author of "Seder ha-Dorot." Olschwang received a thorough Ḥasidic...
OLSCHWANGER, ISAAC WOLF – Russian rabbi; born at Plungian, government of Kovno, Aug. 30, 1825; died in St. Petersburg Aug. 5, 1896. He was on one side a descendant of Mordecai Jaffe, the author of the "Lebushim," and on the other of Judah Löw ben...
OPPENHEIM, ASHER ANSHEL – Talmudist; lived at Dessau at the beginning of the nineteenth century. He was the author of "Dibre Asher" (part i., "Miktab Ḥarbot Ẓurim"), treatise on circumcision (Dessau, 1804).Bibliography: Fuenn, Keneset Yisrael, p. 156;...
OSTROPOLI, SAMSON BEN PESAH – Polish rabbi; martyred at Polonnoye, government of Podolia, in the Cossacks' Uprising July 15, 1648. When the Cossacks laid siege to Polonnoye, Samson, with 300 of his followers, arrayed in their shrouds and praying-shawls, went...
OVRUCH (OVRUTCH) – District town in Volhynia. In 1629 only three houses there were owned by Jews; but a fairly large Jewish community must have existed, for in that year a synagogue was built ("Arkhiv Yugo-Zapadnoi Rossii," VII., ii. 413). In 1883...
'OZER BEN MEÏR – Polish rabbi; died at Zolkiev May, 1710; great-grandson of Solomon Luria. 'Ozer was rabbi at Clementow. He wrote: "Eben 'Ozer 'al Yad" (with text, Amsterdam, 1742), on the Yoreh De'ah, on Oraḥ Ḥayyim, and on Eben ha-'Ezer;...
PALITSCHINETZKI, JOSEPH HIRSH – Biblical scholar; born 1805; died at Berdychev Feb. 27, 1886. He was instructor in the Bible in the rabbinical seminary at Jitomir until its close, and was an assiduous student throughout his life. Palitschinetzki was the author...
PELTIN, SAMUEL HIRSH – Polish author; born at Mariampol, government of Suwalki, May, 1831; died at Warsaw Sept. 30, 1896. In his youth he studied Bible, Talmud, sciences, and languages, and in 1855 settled in Warsaw, where in 1865 he established the...
PERETZ, ISAAC LÖB – Writer in Yiddish and Hebrew; born at Samoscz, government of Lublin, May 25, 1851. In the Hebrew school in which he received his early education he so distinguished himself in his Hebrew studies that he was denominated an...
PINCZOW, ELIEZER B. JUDAH – Polish rabbi; flourished at the end of the seventeenth century; grandson of R. Ẓebi Hirsch, rabbi of Lublin. He was rabbi of Pinczow and other places, and parnas at Cracow. Pinczow was the author of "Dammeseḳ Eli'ezer" (Jesnitz,...
PINCZOW, ELIJAH B. MOSES GER-SHON – Polish physician and Talmudist of the eighteenth century. He was the author of: "Meleket Maḥashebet," part i., "Ir Ḥeshbon" (Frankfort-on-the-Main, 1765), on arithmetic and algebra; part ii., "Berure ha-Middot" (Berlin, 1765),...
PINCZOW, JOSEPH B. JACOB – Polish rabbi and author; flourished in Poland in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries; descendant of R. Jacob Pollak, son-in-law of R. Moses Krämer, chief rabbi of Wilna, and pupil of Ẓebi Hirsch, rabbi of Lublin. Pinczow...