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The unedited full-text of the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia
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A. S. Waldstein, B.A.

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PINES, ELIJAH B. AARON – Rabbi at Shklov, government of Moghilef, Russia, in the eighteenth century; descendant of the families of Jacob Polak and Judah Löb Puchowitzer. He was the author of "Tanna debe Eliyahu" (Zolkiev, 1753), on religion and ethics,...
PINES, JEHIEL MICHAEL – Russian Talmudist and Hebraist; born at Rozhany, government of Grodno, Sept. 26, 1842. He was the son of Noah Pines and the son-in-law of Shemariah Luria, rabbi of Moghilef. After being educated in the local Hebrew school and in...
PINSKER, SIMḤAH – Polish Hebrew scholar and archeologist; born at Tarnopol, Galicia, March 17, 1801; died at Odessa Oct. 29, 1864. He received his early Hebrew education in the ḥeder and from his father, Shebaḥ ha-Levi, a noted preacher, who...
PIOTRKOW – Town in Russian Poland, near Warsaw. For some time Piotrkow was the seat of the Polish diet. At the diet of 1538, held there, it was enacted that no Jew should be permitted to farm the taxes, and that Jews should wear...
POLOTSK (POLOTZK) – District town in the government of Vitebsk, Russia. The first mention of its Jewish community occurs in 1551, when, at the Polish Diet held at Wilna, Polotsk is expressly named in a list of towns whose Jews were to be exempt...
PORTUGALOV, BENJAMIN OSIPOVICH – Russian physician and author; born at Poltava 1835; died at Samara 1896. After studying medicine at the universities of Kharkov and Kiev, he served for a time as army surgeon. He then settled in the government of Perm, where,...
PRESS, MOSES ALEXANDROVICH – Russian engineer and technologist; born 1861; died at Sankt Blasien 1901. After passing through the St. Petersburg Institute of Technology, Press became a contributor to the "Moskovski Journal Putei Soobshchenii" and the...
PROSER, MOSER – Russian Hebraist; born at Keidani, government of Kovno, Jan. 1, 1840. Proser pursued the conventional course of Hebrew education and studied Talmud in various yeshibot. In 1858 he went to Wilna and prepared to enter the...
PUCHOWITZER, JUDAH LÖB B. JOSEPH PARZOWER – Russian rabbi, cabalist, and author; lived in the last quarter of the seventeenth century. He was rabbi at Pinsk, and in his old age emigrated to Palestine and settled at Jerusalem, leaving behind him an injunction to his son...
RABINOVICH, LEON – Russian physicist and journalist; born at Brestovitz, government of Grodno, Jan. 2, 1862. He is descended on his father's side from Yom-Ṭob Lipmann Heller, and on his mother's side from Meïr Eisenstadt, being a grandson of...
RAPA, ELIJAH B. MENAHEM (ELIJAH RAPOPORT) – Italian Talmudist of the sixteenth century. He was the author of "Be'er Mayim Ḥayyim" (Corfu, 1599), on Talmudic and other subjects, and "Ereẓ Ḥefeẓ." (n.d.), on Biblical and Talmudic subjects.Bibliography: Eisenstadt-Wiener,...
RAPA (PORTO), MENAHEM ABRAHAM B. JACOB HA-KOHEN (MENAHEM RAPOPORT) – Italian rabbi and author; lived at Porto, in the district of Verona, and at Cremona; died Dec. 30, 1596. He was a descendant of the Rapa family, but he changed his name to Rapoport (i.e., Rapa of Porto). Early in life Menahem...
RAPA (PORTRAPA), SIMḤAH BEN GERSHOM HA-KOHEN – Talmudic scholar and author of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries; born at Porto, Italy; died at Vienna. He was a younger cousin of Menahem Abraham Rapa; when the latter changed his name to Rapoport, Simḥah began to call...
RAPOPORT – Family, the various branches of which claim a common Kohenitic origin. The names of Rapa or Rappe ha-Kohen ( ) are met with about 1450. At that time Meshullam Kusi (abbreviated from "Jekuthiel") Rapa ha-KohenẒedeḳ, the earliest...
RAPOPORT – Family, the various branches of which claim a common Kohenitic origin. The names of Rapa or Rappe ha-Kohen ( ) are met with about 1450. At that time Meshullam Kusi (abbreviated from "Jekuthiel") Rapa ha-KohenẒedeḳ, the earliest...
REDLICH, HENRY – Polish engraver in copper; born at Lask, government of Piotrkow, 1840; died at Berlin Nov. 7, 1884. He went at an early age to Breslau, where he entered the public school. At fourteen he returned to Russia and became a...
REICHERSON, MOSES HA-KOHEN – Hebrew grammarian; born in Wilna, Oct. 5, 1827; died in New York April 3, 1903. After studying Talmud, Hebrew, and European languages, he became teacher of Hebrew at Wilna. About 1890 he went to New York, where he became teacher...
REINES, MOSES – Russian scholar and author; born at Lida (where his father, R. Isaac Jacob Reines, was rabbi) in 1870; died there March 7, 1891. Moses Reines was the author of: "Ruaḥ ha-Zeman," material for the history of Jewish culture in...
ROSEN, MATHIAS – Polish banker and member of the council of state; born at Warsaw 1804; died there 1865. In 1846 he succeeded to his father's banking business. On account of his eminent services to the community, he was elected in 1862 member of...
ROSENFELD, MORDECAI JONAH – Galician author of Hebrew books; born at Dynow, near Przemysl, Galicia, Oct. 21, 1797; died at Sosnica June 5, 1885. When but seven years old he went to Przemysl and thence to Brody, where he studied the Talmud and Hebrew and...
ROSENTHAL, JOSEPH – Russo-Jewish scholar; born at Suwalki, in the government of the same name in Russian Poland, Feb. 14, 1844. He began the study of the Talmud and commentaries at an early age without the aid of a teacher, and at the same time...
SAMUEL HA-KOHEN – Rabbi of the sixteenth century. He was the author of the following works: "Derek Ḥayyim" (Constantinople, n.d.), on the 613 precepts; "Ner Miẓwah" (Venice, 1598), seventeen homilies on the thirteen articles of faith; and "Torah...
SAUL BEN DAVID – Russian rabbi; died 1623. He was the author of: "Ṭal Orot" (Prague, 1615), treatise, in verse, on the thirty-nine principal classes of work forbidden on Saturday, with an appendix entitled "Ḥiddushe 'Erubin," discussions on...
SHAPIRA, ISAIAH MEÏR KAHANA – Polish-German rabbi and author; born at Memel, Prussia, July 28, 1828; died at Czortkow, Galicia, Jan. 9, 1887. He is said to have been familiar at the age of thirteen with all the "sedarim" of both Talmudim and with a part of...
SHATZKES, MOSES AARON – Russian Hebrew author; born at Karlin 1825; died at Kiev Aug. 24, 1899. He received a general as well as a Hebrew education, and he devoted himself to literature. His literary labors brought him little material benefit, however,...