JewishEncyclopedia.com

The unedited full-text of the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia
- Phrase search: "names of god"
- Exclude terms: "names of god" -zerah
- Volume/Page: v9 p419
- Diacritics optional: Ḥanukkah or hanukkah
- Search by Author: altruism author:Hirsch
search tips & recommendations

Caspar Levias, M.A.

Formerly Instructor in Exegesis and Talmudic Aramaic, Hebrew Union College, Cincinnati, Ohio.

Contributions:
AARON BEN MOSES BEN ASHER – A distinguished Masorite who flourished in Tiberias in the first half of the tenth century. He was descended from a family of Masorites which can be traced back through six generations to Asher the Elder, who flourished in the...
ABBREVIATIONS – Terminology. The oldest term for abbreviation, = νοταρικόν, is found in tannaitic literature as early as 150 B.C. (Krauss, "Lehnwörter," ii. s.v.; Bacher, "Die Älteste Terminologie"). Authorities of the third century use also...
ANCIENT OF DAYS – Biblical Data: A poetical epithet for God. It is an incorrect rendering of the Aramaic 'attiḳ yomin (Dan. vii. 9) or 'attiḳ yomaya (ib. vii. 13, 22), which should be translated "an aged one," "the aged one" (compare Dalman, "Die...
ARTISANS – Terms. —In Bible and Talmud: The general term for "artisan" in the Bible is "Ḧarash" or "Ḧoresh," which, derived from a verb meaning "to cut," is applicable to any worker in a hard substance, such as metal, stone, or wood...
ASH – The A. V. rendering of the Hebrew "oren" (Isa. xliv. 14); R. V. has "fir-tree." According to TanḦum (quoted in Gesenius, "Thesaurus," under ), the word was used in later Hebrew in the sense of "mast." The plural, "oranim"—for...
BEN NAPHTALI – Masorite; flourished about 890-940 C.E., probably in Tiberias. Of his life little is known. His first name is in dispute. Some medieval authorities called him "Jacob"; two Tchufut-Kalè manuscripts have "Moses b. David"; a...
BLEMISH – Blemishes Disqualify for Sacrifice. The Hebrew term for "blemish" ( or ) seems to have originally meant a "black spot" (compare Gesenius-Buhl, "Handwörterbuch," s.v.). It denotes anything abnormal or deviating from a given...
CAPTIVITY – By "exile" is meant any form of forced emigration in which the selection of his new habitation is left to the choice of the person banished. In a particular sense the word is used to designate the enforced emigration of larger...
CHARAATHALAN – Name occurring in I Esd. v. 36. It is a corruption of "Cherub," "Addan," and "Immer" (Ezra ii. 59 = Neh. vii. 61). Compare Cherub.E. G. H. C. L.
COLOR – It is noteworthy that Biblical Hebrew contains no term to express that property of light known as color. When a Hebrew writer wishes to compare an object with another in respect to color, he employs the word ("eye") or...
CURSING – The expressions used for "cursing" it in the Bible are: (1) ; (2) ; (3) (verb and noun) and ; (4) ; (5) (Lev. xxiv. 11, 16); (6) .In Talmudie literature occur the terms: , , (Sanh. ix. 11), which the Jerusalem Talmud (ad loc.)...
DARIUS III – Biblical Data: Last King of Persia; reigned from 336 to 330 B.C.; conquered by Alexander the Great. He is probably the "Darius the Persian," with whose reign the record of the priestly heads of families mentioned in Nehemiah...
DINAH – Biblical. Data: "Dinah" is the name of Jacob's daughter by Leah (Gen. xxx. 21). Shechem, the son of Hamor the Hivite, seduces her while she is visiting "to see the daughters of the land" (Gen. xxxiv. 1-31). Though he is anxious...
ERNESTI, JOHANN AUGUST – Protestant theologian; classical scholar; born Aug. 4, 1707, at Tennstädt, Thuringia; died 1781 at Leipsic, in the university of which city he was professor of classical literature, rhetoric, and theology. Ernesti did good...
FAGIUS, PAUL (Paul Büchlein) – Christian Hebraist; born at Rheinzabern, in the Kurpfalz, 1504; died at Cambridge, England, Nov. 13, 1549. He studied at the universities of Heidelberg and Strasburg, and became successively pastor at Isny, professor and...
FATHER – The word denotes primarily the begetter or genitor of an individual. In a looser sense it is used to designate the grandfather or remoter progenitor in general; also the head of the household, family, or clan; or the originator...
GEMAṬRIA – A cryptograph which gives, instead of the intended word, its numerical value, or a cipher produced by the permutation of letters. The term first occurs in literature in the twenty-ninth of the thirty-two hermeneutic rules of R....
ḤAYYUJ, JUDAH B. DAVID (Abu Zakariyya Yaḥya ibn Daud) – Father of Scientific Hebrew Grammar. Spanish-Hebrew grammarian; born in Fez, Morocco, about 950. At an early age he went to Cordova, where he seems to have remained till his death, which occurred early in the eleventh century....
HEBREW LANGUAGE – Name. The designation "Hebrew language" for the language in which are written the Old Testament (with the exception of Ezra iv. 8-vi. 18; Dan. ii. 4 [after the fourth word]-vii. 38; Jer. x. 11; and a proper name in Gen. xxxi....
IBN BAL'AM, ABU ZAKARYA YAḤYA (R. JUDAH) – Hebrew grammarian of Toledo, Spain, about 1070-90. In the introduction to his "Moznayim" Abraham ibn Ezra mentions Ibn Bal'am among the early masters of Hebrew grammar, and Moses ibn Ezra, in his "Kitab al-Muḥaḍarah," gives the...
ḲALIR, ELEAZAR – Place and Date Doubtful. One of the earliest and the most prolific of the payyeṭanim or liturgical poets. In the acrostics of his hymns he usually signs his father's name , but three times he writes . Eleazar's name, home ( ),...
ḲIMḤI – Name of a family of scholars, the earliest known members of which lived at the end of the eleventh and in the twelfth century. The name was so common that it was used by R. Michael in his "Seder ha-Geṭ" as a paradigm word. It is...
ḲIMḤI – Name of a family of scholars, the earliest known members of which lived at the end of the eleventh and in the twelfth century. The name was so common that it was used by R. Michael in his "Seder ha-Geṭ" as a paradigm word. It is...
ḲIMḤI – Name of a family of scholars, the earliest known members of which lived at the end of the eleventh and in the twelfth century. The name was so common that it was used by R. Michael in his "Seder ha-Geṭ" as a paradigm word. It is...
LEVY, JACOB – German rabbi and lexicographer; born May, 1819, at Dabrzyze, Posen; died at Breslau Feb. 27, 1892. Having received his Talmudic education from his father, Isaac Levy, who was district rabbi at Schildberg, and from Akiba Eger, he...