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The unedited full-text of the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia
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Gotthard Deutsch, Ph.D.

Professor of Jewish History, Hebrew Union College, Cincinnati, Ohio.

Contributions:
GEMEINDEBUND, DEUTSCH - ISRAELITISCHER – An association of Jewish corporations in Germany, founded July 3, 1869, on the occasion of the Jewish synod at Leipsic, and incorporated Feb. 13, 1899. The federation has for its object the exchange of experiences in matters of...
GENEVA – Synagogue at Geneva, Switzerland.(From a photograph.)Capital of the Swiss canton of the same name; situated at the southwest end of Lake Geneva; population (1900) about 80,000, of whom 1,076 are Jews. Jews lived there, as well...
GENOA – Middle Ages. An important Italian seaport on the Gulf of Genoa; also a former republic of the same name. It is very probable that even before the destruction of the Second Temple Jews from Rome settled in Genoa and took part in...
GERASI, DANIEL BEN ELIJAH – Turkish Talmudist and preacher of the seventeenth century; lived at Salonica, where he died about 1705. He was the author of "Odeh Adonai," sermons (Venice, 1681-82). Some Talmudic sentences of his are referred to by Ḥayyim...
GERHARD, FRIEDRICH – German Christian writer against the Jews; born in Frankfort-on-the-Main Jan. 2, 1779; died there Oct. 30, 1862. He was a Lutheran clergyman at Frankfort and a writer on theological subjects. For a time he edited "Der...
GHENT – Chief city of eastern Flanders, Belgium. That at the time of the Crusades there were Jews in Ghent is known, as they were the victims of pillage and massacre. In 1125 the Jews were expelled from Flanders by Charles I. "the...
GHEZ – A Tunisian family including several authors.David Ghez: Talmudist; lived at Tunis in the second half of the eighteenth century. He was a pupil of Isaac Lombroso and Ẓemaḥ Ẓarfati. He wrote several works, only one of which, a...
GHIRON – An old family originally from Gerona, Spain, and known in Hebrew as "the Geronim." It has produced many rabbis, among whom may be mentioned the following:Abraham Ghiron: Son, and successor in Adrianople, of Jacob Yaḳḳir...
GHIRONDI – Italian family of Padua, the founder of which settled there toward the end of the sixteenth century. The name indicates that he was a native of Gerona in Spain. He was also called "Ẓarfati" (the Frenchman), either because Gerona...
GLAGAU, OTTO – Anti-Semitic writer; born in Königsberg, Prussia, Jan. 16, 1834; died in Berlin March 2, 1892. As a journalist and political writer Glagau had already made quite a reputation when he began, in the "Gartenlaube" of 1873, a series...
GLOGAU, JEHIEL MICHAEL BEN UZZIEL – German rabbi; lived at Halberstadt in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. He was the author of "Nezer ha-Ḳodesh," glosses on "Bereshit Rabbah" (Jessnitz, 1719). A long responsum, addressed to Ẓebi Hirsch Ashkenazi and...
GLOGAUER, ABIGDOR BEN SIMḤAH HA-LEVI – German Hebrew scholar of the eighteenth century. He published "Dabar Ṭob," an elementary Hebrew grammar with paradigms, printed with Moses ibn Ḥabib's "Marpe Lashon" (Prague, 1783); "Iggerot," Mendelssohn's letters (Vienna,...
GLOGAUER, JUDAH BEN ḤANINA SELIG – German Talmudist of the beginning of the eighteenth century. He was the author of a work entitled "Ḳol Yehudah," a collection of notes on the Talmud by various rabbis of his time, with some remarks of his own. (Amsterdam, 1729,...
GLOGAUER, MEïR BEN EZEKIEL – Bohemian Talmudist; died at Prague in 1829. He wrote: "Dibre Meir," novellæ, on the Talmudic treatises Giṭṭin, Shabbat, Rosh ha-Shanah, and Baba Meẓi'a (Prague, 1810); "Sbemen ha-Ma'or," commentary on the Shulḥan 'Aruk, Oraḥ...
GLOGAUER, MOSES BEN ẒEBI HIRSCH – German scholar; lived at Hamburg in the eighteenth century. He was the author of a work entitled "Ḥebel le-Haḥayot," a collection of ethical essays, puzzles, and charades (Altona, 1803).Bibliography: Fürst, Bibl. Jud. i. 336.D....
GOITEIN, BARUCH (BENEDIT) – Hungarian rabbi; died at Hö;gyész, Hungary, Nov. 16, 1842. He occupied the rabbinate of Högyész for many years, and wrote a work on Talmudic methodology under the title of "Kesef Nibḥar" (Prague, 1827-28, and republished several...
GOLDSCHMIDT, LAZARUS – German writer; born at Plungiany, Lithuania, Russia, Dec. 17, 1871. He received his rabbinical education at the Talmudic school in Slobodki, near Kovno. In 1888 he went to Germany, and in 1890 entered the Berlin University,...
GRADIS – Name of a family of prominent merchants in southern France, originally from Spain; flourished in Bordeaux in the eighteenth century. The following family tree indicates the relationship of the members of the great Bordeaux firm:...
GRAES, ORTUIN DE – Anti-Jewish writer of the sixteenth century; born at Holtwick in Westphalia in 1491; died at Cologne May 21, 1542. He was the son of a priest, and became one of the chiefs of the Dominican party in Cologne. Ortuin was a rabid...
GRAETZ, HEINRICH (HIRSCH) – German historian and exegete; born Oct. 31, 1817, at Xions, province of Posen; died at Munich Sept. 7, 1891. He received his first instruction at Zerkov, whither his parents had removed, and in 1831 was sent to Wollstein, where...
GRÄTZ – Town in the province of Posen, Prussia, with a population of 3,784, of whom 319 are Jews (1903). The Jewish community there is one of the oldest in the province. Jews are mentioned in the city charter of April 9, 1594. In 1634...
GREECE – Country of southeastern Europe. The number of its Jews is not more than 9,000, distributed as follows: Corfu, 3,500; Zante, 175; Chalcis, on the island of Eubœa or Negropont, 200; Volo, 1,100; Larissa, 2,500; Trikala, 1,000;...
GRÉGOIRE, HENRI – Jesuit priest, politician, and advocate of the Jews; born at Vého, near Lunéville, Dec. 4, 1750; died at Paris May 28, 1831. Grégoire was a typical representative of the humanitarian ideas of the eighteenth century....
GREGORY XIII. (UGO BUONCOMPAGNI) – Pope from 1572 to 1585; born at Bologna Feb. 7, 1502; died at Rome April 10, 1585. His attitude toward the Jews was that of a man possessed of natural goodness warped by strong feelings of intolerance and fanaticism. Soon after...
GRIESHABER (KRIEGSHABER), ISAAC – Polish-Hungarian rabbi at Paks, Hungary; born at Cracow. He was the author of "Maḳḳel No'am" (Vienna, 1799), in which he sharply criticized Aaron Chorin for declaring the sturgeon permissible food.Bibliography: Löw, Gesammelte...