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The unedited full-text of the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia
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Gotthard Deutsch, Ph.D.

Professor of Jewish History, Hebrew Union College, Cincinnati, Ohio.

Contributions:
HAMBURG – German city on the right bank of the Elbe, between Sleswick-Holstein and Hanover. The first Jewish settlers were Portuguese Maranos, who had fled from their own country under Philip II. and Philip III., at first concealing their...
HAMBURGER, JACOB – German rabbi and author; born at Loslau, Silesia, Nov. 10, 1826. He received his early education in Ratibor, and then attended the yeshibot of Hotzenplotz, Presburg, and Nikolsburg, and the University of Breslau. In 1852 he was...
HAMELN – Prussian town on the Hamel and Weser. Jews are recorded as present in Hameln as early as 1277. About the middle of the following century (1341) a considerable number of Jews lived there. They were admitted by the city council at...
HAMELN, GLÜCKEL OF (Glückel von Hameln) – German diarist; born about 1646 in Hamburg; died 1724 at Metz. In 1649, when the German Jews were expelled from Hamburg, Glückel's parents moved to Altona; but in consequence of the Swedish invasion of that city in 1657 they...
HAMON – Ancient family, originally from Spain, which settled in Turkey and produced several physicians. The following were among its more important members:1. Aaron b. Isaac Hamon: Physician at Constantinople about 1720.2. Joseph Hamon:...
HANAU – Town in the province of Hesse-Nassau, Prussia. Jews settled in the territory of the counts of Hanau in the first half of the thirteenthcentury. Reinhard of Hanau was one of the princes who pledged the king's peace in 1265,...
HANAU, ẒEBI HIRSH HA-LEVI BEN HAGGAI ENOCH – German rabbi; born at Vienna in 1662; died at Gemund, Bavaria, in 1740. He resided for many years at Frankfort-on-the-Main, where he assisted Jair Ḥayyim Bacharach in preparing his responsa, "Ḥawwot Ya'ir," for publication, and...
HARBURG – Jew Minters. City on the Elbe, six miles south of Hamburg, in the Prussian province of Hanover. Jews were not admitted to Harburg until the seventeenth century, when Duke William August (1603-1642) established a mint there which...
ḤASDAI BEN SAMUEL BEN PERAḤYAH HA-KOHEN – Turkish rabbi; born at Salonica; died there Sept., 1677; claimed descent from Joseph ben Gorion. He was a son of the learned Samuel ben Peraḥyah of Salonica, and a pupil of Rabbi Ḥayyim Shabbethai in that city, where he also...
HAWKERS AND PEDLERS – Biblical Data: In primitive countries trading was monopolized by traveling merchants. Palestine, an agricultural country, knew the traders mostly as foreigners, chiefly Canaanites (Hosea xii. 8; Isa. xxiii. 8; Prov. xxxi. 24;...
ḤAYYIM HA-KOHEN – German rabbi; born at Prague at the end of the sixteenth century; died at Posen about the middle of the seventeenth century. He was the son of Isaac ben Samson ha-Kohen, and, on his mother's side, a grandson of the renowned Löw...
ḤAYYIM BEN MENAHEM OF GLOGAU – German scholar; lived in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. He wrote a work entitled "Mar'eh ha-Ketab bi-Leshon Ashkenaz we-Rashe Tebot" (Berlin, about 1717), a manual, chiefly for the use of women, on reading and writing...
ḤAZZAN, HAZAN – An Oriental rabbinical family, probably of Spanish origin, members of which are found in Spain, and in Smyrna, Alexandria, and other cities of the East; their pedigree, however, can not be traced further back than the eighteenth...
ḤEBRA ḲADDISHA – Name for a charitable society which cares for the sick, especially for the dying, and buries the dead. The name "ḥebra ḳaddisha" (holy society) seems to have been used originally for congregations and religious societies...
HEBRON – 1. A city of Asher, properly "Ebron"; called also Abdon.2. Town in Palestine, about 17 miles southwest of Jerusalem; it has a population of 14,000, including 1,100 Jews—690 Sephardim and 410 Ashkenazim. In 1890 there was a...
HEDYOṬ – Term used in Mishnah, Talmud, and Midrash to designate a private person, a commoner, not belonging to the class of kings, priests, officers, etc. (e.g., Sanh. 90a, "three kings and four hedyoṭot"); also an ignorant man; one of...
HEIDELBERG – University town in the grand duchy of Baden, Germany; it has a population of 40,240, including 882 Jews. The community there dates from the middle of the thirteenth century, as is shown by historical references to the presence...
HEIDENHEIM, PHILIP – German rabbi and teacher; born at Bleicherode June 14, 1814. In 1834 he was called as teacher to Sondershausen, where he worked under I. Wolffson, whom he succeeded in 1837 as principal and preacher. In 1840 he was appointed...
HEIDINGSFELD – Bavarian city, on the Main, near Würzburg. It has a population of 4,154, including 100 Jews (1903). That it contained one of the oldest Jewish settlements may be seen from the "Martyrologium" of Nuremberg (ed. Salfeld, p. 233),...
HEILBRONN – Town of Württemberg in the district of the Neckar. There was an important community there in 1298, when Rindfleisch and his hordes slew nearly 200 Jews (Oct. 19). Among the victims were one rabbi and one punctator ("naḳdan"). At...
HEILBRONN, JACOB BEN ELHANAN – German rabbi and mathematician; flourished in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. After occupying various rabbinates he settled at Padua. He wrote: "Seder Meliḥah," a treatise in Judæo-German on the law of salting meat, at...
HEILPRIN, JOEL BEN ISAAC – Polish Ḥasidic rabbi; lived at Ostrog in the middle of the seventeenth century. He was known as "Ba'al Shem I.," and, owing to his Talmudic and cabalistic learning, enjoyed a great reputation among his contemporaries, who called...
HEKSCHER, EPHRAIM BEN SAMUEL SANVEL – President of the Jewish congregation at Altona at the beginning of the eighteenth century. He was the author of: "Dibre Ḥakamim we-Ḥidotam," giving the sources and interpretations of many rabbinical laws (Altona, 1743); "Adne...
HELIN, ABRAHAM BEN JACOB MOSES – German rabbi; lived in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. Helin was on his father's side a great-grandson of Solomon Luria, and was chief rabbi of Warta (Poland) and Glogau. During his stay at Vienna, Helin wrote: "Zera'...
HENOCHS, MOSES – Talmudist; lived at Jerusalem about 1570. He was the author of "Mar'ah ha-Sorefet," a devotional work, translated into Judæo-German by Phinehas b. Judah Heilprin under the title "Brandspiegel" (Basel, 1602).Bibliography:...