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The unedited full-text of the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia
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Gotthard Deutsch, Ph.D.

Professor of Jewish History, Hebrew Union College, Cincinnati, Ohio.

Contributions:
PINTO – Family of financiers, rabbis, scholars, soldiers, and communal workers, originally from Portugal. Members of it lived in Syria in the beginning of the sixteenth century; and in 1535 there was at Rome a Diogo Rodrigues Pinto,...
PINTO – Family of financiers, rabbis, scholars, soldiers, and communal workers, originally from Portugal. Members of it lived in Syria in the beginning of the sixteenth century; and in 1535 there was at Rome a Diogo Rodrigues Pinto,...
PINTO – Family of financiers, rabbis, scholars, soldiers, and communal workers, originally from Portugal. Members of it lived in Syria in the beginning of the sixteenth century; and in 1535 there was at Rome a Diogo Rodrigues Pinto,...
PINTO – Family of financiers, rabbis, scholars, soldiers, and communal workers, originally from Portugal. Members of it lived in Syria in the beginning of the sixteenth century; and in 1535 there was at Rome a Diogo Rodrigues Pinto,...
PISA, DA – Italian family, deriving its name from the city of Pisa. It can be traced back to the fifteenth century.Abraham ben Isaac da Pisa: Talmudist; son of Isaac ben Jehiel; lived in Bologna, where he died in 1554. He was often...
PIUS IV. (Gian Angelo Medici) – Pope from 1559 to 1565. He was a Milanese of humble origin. and became cardinal under Paul III., through the latter's relations with Gian's brother Giangiacomo, who had made himself master of Sienna. Gian, who enjoyed the pope's...
PIYYUṬ – Hymn added to the older liturgy that developed during the Talmudic era and up to the seventh century. The word is derived from the Greek term for poetry, perhaps more directly from ποιητής. The author of a piyyuṭ is called...
PLEDGES – The law against taking pledges for debt is drawn from the following passages: "No man shall take the mill or the upper millstone to pledge: for he taketh a man's life to pledge" (Deut. xxiv. 6, R. V.), "nor [shall he] take the...
PLETSCH, SOLOMON – German physician of the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries; a native of Regensburg. Pletsch was in 1394 appointed city surgeon of Frankfort-on-the-Main with a salary of 36 gulden per year. Besides, the city furnished him with...
PLOTKE, JULIUS – German lawyer and communal worker; born at Borek, province of Posen, Oct. 5, 1857; died at Frankfort-on-the-Main Sept. 27, 1903. Having finished his studies at the gymnasium at Krotoschin and the University of Berlin, he...
POGGETTI, JACOB (JOSEPH) B. MOR-DECAI – Italian Talmudist and writer on religious ethics; born at Asti, Piedmont; flourished in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. His only known work is "Ḳiẓẓur Reshit Ḥokmah" (Venice, 1600; Cracow, 1667; Amsterdam, 1725;...
POLL-TAX – The custom of taxing a population at a certain amount per head dates back to very ancient times. The first time such a tax is mentioned is in Ex. xxx. 12-16, where it is stated that every male "from twenty years old and above"...
POLNA AFFAIR – An accusation of ritual murder in Polna resulting from the murder of Agnes Hruza March 29, 1899. Polna, a city in the district of Deutschbrod, Bohemia, with a population of 5,000, including a small Jewish settlement, was shocked...
POPES, THE – General Principles. The Roman Church does not claim any jurisdiction over persons who have not been baptized; therefore the relations of the popes, as the heads of the Church, to the Jews have been limited to rules regarding the...
PORTALEONE – Jewish family of northern Italy, which probably derived its name from the quarter of Portaleone, situated in the vicinity of the ghetto of Rome. In 1399 Elhanan Portaleone was dayyan in Lombardy. The family included many...
PORTUGAL – In the Thirteenth Century. Kingdom in the southwest of Europe. The condition of its Jews, whose residence in the country is contemporaneous with that of the Jews in Spain, while in general like that of their coreligionists in...
PORTUGAL – In the Thirteenth Century. Kingdom in the southwest of Europe. The condition of its Jews, whose residence in the country is contemporaneous with that of the Jews in Spain, while in general like that of their coreligionists in...
POSEN – Province of Prussia; formerly a part of the kingdom of Poland, it was annexed by the former country after the partition of the latter in 1772 and 1793. In the first half of the thirteenth century, when the Germans crossed the...
PÖSING – Small town in the county of Presburg, where on May 27, 1529 (Friday, Siwan 13), thirty Jews were burned to death on the accusation of having murdered a Christian child for ritual purposes. The charge was invented by the lord of...
POSNER, MEÏR – Prussian rabbi; born 1735; died at Danzig Feb. 3, 1807. He was rabbi of the Schottland congregation in Danzig from 1782 till his death.Posner was the author of "Bet Meïr" (Frankfort-on-the-Oder, 1787; Lemberg, 1836), a...
POTSDAM – City in the Prussian province of Brandenburg. It was the residence of the electors of Brandenburg; and here the Great Elector, Frederick William, ratified May 20, 1671, the agreement by which he permitted fifty families of the...
PRADO, MOSES – Christian convert to Judaism; lived in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, first at Marburg, Germany, and later at Salonica, Turkey. His Christian name was Conrad Victor, and he filled the position of professor of the...
PRAGUE – Regulations of Ottocar. Capital of Bohemia; the first Bohemian city in which Jews settled. Reference to them is found as early as 906, when the Jew Ibrahim ibn Jacob mentioned them as frequenting the slave-market. Pethahiah of...
PRERAU – Town in Moravia. The Judengasse of Prerau is mentioned as early as Charles IV. (1339-1349), but the settlement of Jews in Prerau was of little significance until 1454, when the expulsions, due to Capistrano, from Olmütz and...
PRESBURG – City of Hungary, situated on the River Danube. Its location on a commercial highroad makes it probable that its Jewish community is one of the oldest in Hungary. The first documentary mention of its Jews dates from 1251. In 1291...