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The unedited full-text of the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia
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David Philipson, D.D.

Rabbi, B'ne Israel Congregation; Professor of Homiletics, Hebrew Union College, Cincinnati, Ohio.

Contributions:
AGE, OLD – Various terms are used in the Bible to designate the declining years of life. The most frequent is zaḳen (old, and old man). This term is applied first to Abraham and thereafter to other Biblical worthies, as Isaac, Jacob,...
BLESSING OF CHILDREN – Among the Ancient Hebrews. In the domestic life of the ancient Hebrews the mutual respect existing between parents and children was a marked feature. While prominent among other Semitic peoples (Smith, "Rel. of Sem." p. 60), it...
BLESSING, PRIESTLY – One of the most impressive and characteristic features of the service both in the Temple of Jerusalem and in the synagogue, having its origin in the blessing pronounced by the Aaronites in accordance with the command and the...
CHASTITY – Purity in regard to the relations of sex, implied in the commandment, "Ye shall be holy: for I the Lord your God am holy" (Lev. xix. 2). The ancient Semitic religions gave a prominent place to the adoration of those powers in...
CINCINNATI – English Jews Settle. Hebrew Union College, Cincinnati, O.(From a photograph.)Capital of Hamilton county, Ohio, U. S. A. Its Jewish community is the oldest west of the Alleghany Mountains. In March, 1817, Joseph Jonas, a young...
CONFERENCES, RABBINICAL – Assemblies of rabbis to determine common courses of action or common principles of faith. Rabbinical conferences are a late phenomenon in the history of Judaism, dating, as they do, only from the fourth decade of the nineteenth...
DUTY – That which is due to God as the Master of life, or to a fellow man, or to oneself. "Duty" is an ethical term; its recognition as such is urged by the inner voice called conscience (see Wisdom xvii. 11), which tells man what he...
ENEMY, TREATMENT OF AN – Hatred of an enemy is a natural impulse of primitive peoples; willingness to forgive an enemy is a mark of advanced moral development. Jewish teaching, in Bible, Talmud, and other writings, gradually educates the people toward...
FLEISCHMANN, JULIUS – American merchant; mayor of Cincinnati, Ohio; born at Riverside, Ohio, June 8, 1872. Fleischmann was a member of the staff of Governor McKinley (later President of the United States), and also of the staffs of Governors Bushnell...
HEBREW SABBATH-SCHOOL UNION OF AMERICA – Organized at Cincinnati, Ohio, July, 1886. "to provide a uniform system for all Hebrew Sabbath-schools in the United States by promul-gating a uniform course of instruction and by training competent teachers." It was the first...
HOMILETICS – Traditional Antiquity of Preaching. That branch of rhetoric which treats of the composition and delivery of sermons or homilies. Although from the very nature of the case provision had been made for public worship among the...
JOHNSON – American family, members of which have attained distinction in Ohio, Texas, and New York. The family is from England, the most important members being:David Israel Johnson: The earliest known member of the family; married Eliza...
MONOTHEISM – The belief in one God. The French writer Ernest Renan has propounded the theory that the monotheistic instinct was a Semitic trait, and that therefore the universal belief that it was characteristic of the Hebrews alone must be...
MOTHER – Biblical Data: Although the father was considered the head of the family among the Hebrews of old, and the mother therefore occupied an inferior position legally and ritually, yet in the ethical relation involving the reverence...
REFORM JUDAISM FROM THE POINT OF VIEW OF THE REFORM JEW – Reform" a Misnomer. By Reform Judaism is denoted that phase of Jewish religious thought which, in the wake of the Mendelssohnian period and in consequence of the efforts made during the fifth decade of the nineteenth century to...
SABBATH-SCHOOLS – Among the Jews the Sabbath-school or congregational religious school is a product of the nineteenth century. True, in past times every Jewish community of any size had its school for the teaching of the young; but this was a...
WISE, ISAAC MAYER – American Reform rabbi, editor, and author; born at Steingrub, Bohemia, March 29, 1819; died at Cincinnati, Ohio, March 26, 1900. He was the son of Leo Wise, a school-teacher, and received his early Hebrew education from his...