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Emil G. Hirsch, Ph.D., LL.D.

Rabbi, Sinai Congregation; Professor of Rabbinical Literature and Philosophy, University of Chicago; Chicago, Ill.

Contributions:
AGNOSTICISM – Name and Meaning. A term invented by Prof. Thomas H. Huxley in 1869, expressive of opposition to the claims of the Christian gnostic as "the one who knows all about God" (see Huxley in the "Nineteenth Century," February, 1889),...
ALBO, JOSEPH – Spanish preacher and theologian of the fifteenth century; known chiefly as the author of the work on the fundamentals of Judaism "'IḲḲarim" (Principles). Little is known of the details of his life. Monreal, a town in Aragon, is...
ALTRUISM – A term derived from the late Latin alter hic ("this other"); dative, alteri huic, contracted to alteruic. It seems to have been first used by Comte (1798-1857), to designate conduct impelled by motives utterly unselfish and...
ARTICLES OF FAITH – No Fixed Dogmas. In the same sense as Christianity or Islam, Judaism can not be credited with the possession of Articles of Faith. Many attempts have indeed been made at systematizing and reducing to a fixed phraseology and...
ASCETICISM – A term derived from the Greek verb ἀσκέω, meaning "to practise strenuously," "to exercise." Athletes were therefore said to go through ascetic training, and to be ascetics. In this usage the twofold application—to the mode of...
ATHEISM – A term derived from the Greek, meaning literally the "disbelief in a God." As originally used in the writings of the people that coined it, it carried the implication of non-recognition of the God or the gods acknowledged as...
BEAUTIFUL, THE, IN JEWISH LITERATURE – To the speculative theory of the beautiful the Jews can not be said to have contributed fruitful thoughts. In the economy of the humanities this field fell to the inheritance of the Greeks. This statement will stand, even...
BIBLE CANON – 1. Meaning and Scope. The Greek word κανών, meaning primarily a straight rod, and derivatively a norm or law, was first applied by the church fathers (not earlier than 360) to the collection of Holy Scriptures, and primarily to...
BIBLE MANUSCRIPTS – By this term are designated handwritten copies and codices of the Hebrew Bible as a whole, or of several books arranged in groups according to a certain order (see Bible Canon), or of single books. Sometimes, though not often,...
BIBLE MANUSCRIPTS – By this term are designated handwritten copies and codices of the Hebrew Bible as a whole, or of several books arranged in groups according to a certain order (see Bible Canon), or of single books. Sometimes, though not often,...
BODY IN JEWISH THEOLOGY – In Hebrew the idea of "body" is expressed by the term "basar" (Assyrian, "bishru"), which, commonly translated "flesh," originally denoted blood-relation, clan (see Gen. ii. 23, 24), the physical appearance being regarded as the...
BRASS – A composition of copper and zinc. The application of the word in the Bible is uncertain, as instruments of copper and bronze were often used where brass is mentioned. Copper, bronze, and other metals were known to the Egyptians...
BREAD – Preparation of Bread. Bread was the principal article of food among the Hebrews, while meat, vegetables, or liquids served only to supplement the meal (Gen. xxv. 34, xxvii. 17; Ruth ii. 14; I Sam. xxviii. 24; Gen. xviii. 7)....
BRIDLE – A term used in the English versions of the Bible interchangeably with bit to represent the three Hebrew words , and , which, however, do not as a rule denote the usual head-gear of a horse or other beast of burden, consisting of...
BROOCH – A term which occurs in I. Mace. x. 89, xi. 58, xiv. 44, as the translation of the Greek πόρπη; Latin, fibula. This was a ring made of metal (often gold) and set with precious stones, through which passed a pin. It was used, in...
BUL – The name of the month in which the building of Solomon's Temple was completed, as mentioned in I Kings vi. 38. It would seem that at the time of the writing of that passage the name was obsolete; for the writer found it...
CAGE – A rendering for in Jer. v. 27; but it is doubtful whether this translation is accurate. The Hebrew word occurs only once more—viz., in Amos viii. 1—where it seems to be a basket, probably of wickerwork, or some other net-like...
CALCOL – A man famous for his wisdom, since the Biblical writer attests the wisdom of Solomon by saying that he surpassed Calcol. In the account of I Kings iv. 31, R. V., Calcol (Chalcol, I Kings iv. 31, A. V.) is given as the son of...
CALF, GOLDEN – Biblical Data: A portable image overlaid with gold, made by Aaron at Mount Sinai (Ex. xxxii.). As the text stands, it narrates how Moses had gone up into the mountain to receive the Ten Words, and remained forty days. When the...
CALF, GOLDEN – Biblical Data: A portable image overlaid with gold, made by Aaron at Mount Sinai (Ex. xxxii.). As the text stands, it narrates how Moses had gone up into the mountain to receive the Ten Words, and remained forty days. When the...
CALITAS – A Levite who had married a foreign wife, but, at the solicitation of Ezra, repudiated her (I Esd. ix. 23). Ezra x. 23 gives "Kelaiah," a glossator, however, giving the collateral form "Kelita." He is perhaps identical with the...
CALLISTHENES – A Syrian who was believed to have been concerned in the burning of the gates of the Temple during the persecution to which the Jews were subjected in the reign of Antiochus Epiphanes (I Macc. iv. 38). When the Jews were...
CALNO – A city mentioned with Hamath and Samaria, and compared to Carchemish (Isa. x. 9). Its identity is doubtful. It is named "Calneh" in Amos vi. 2; but must not be confused with the Calneh of Gen. x. 10. The latter was a Babylonian...
CAMP – A collection of tents (Judges vii. 13), or booths and huts (Neh. viii. 14), pitched or erected to give shelter to shepherds, travelers, or soldiers, sometimes overnight merely, or for many days or even months. Safety and a...
CAMPHIRE – A shrub growing to a height of between eight and ten feet, and bearing cream-colored and very fragrant flowers. The botanical name of the plant is Lawsonia alba. In ancient times it grew very plentifully near En-gedi (Song of...