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Emil G. Hirsch, Ph.D., LL.D.

Rabbi, Sinai Congregation; Professor of Rabbinical Literature and Philosophy, University of Chicago; Chicago, Ill.

Contributions:
GAD – 1. The seventh of Jacob's sons, the first-born of Zilpah, himself the father of seven sons (Gen. xxx. 10, 11; xlvi. 16; Num. xxvi. 15 et seq.). The name means "[good] fortune."2. Biblical Data: Tribe descended from Gad, the...
GAD – 1. The seventh of Jacob's sons, the first-born of Zilpah, himself the father of seven sons (Gen. xxx. 10, 11; xlvi. 16; Num. xxvi. 15 et seq.). The name means "[good] fortune."2. Biblical Data: Tribe descended from Gad, the...
GAD – 1. The seventh of Jacob's sons, the first-born of Zilpah, himself the father of seven sons (Gen. xxx. 10, 11; xlvi. 16; Num. xxvi. 15 et seq.). The name means "[good] fortune."2. Biblical Data: Tribe descended from Gad, the...
GADARA – Biblical Data: A Hellenistic city, situated southeast of the Sea of Gennesaret. It was rebuilt by Pompey, and afterward given to Herod the Great. After his death it became a free city under Roman sovereignty (Josephus, "Ant."...
GADARA – Biblical Data: A Hellenistic city, situated southeast of the Sea of Gennesaret. It was rebuilt by Pompey, and afterward given to Herod the Great. After his death it became a free city under Roman sovereignty (Josephus, "Ant."...
GADFLY – Marginal rendering in the Revised Version of the Hebrew "ḳereẓ" (Jer. xlvi. 20), where "destruction" is given in the texts of both English versions. For arguments in favor of the former rendering, now generally adopted, see the...
GALILEE – Biblical and Post-Biblical Data: In the Greek period the customary name for the northern division of western Palestine. The name is formed from "ha-Galil," in the Old Testament (Josh. xx. 7, xxi. 32, LXX.; I Kings ix. 11; II...
GALILEE – Biblical and Post-Biblical Data: In the Greek period the customary name for the northern division of western Palestine. The name is formed from "ha-Galil," in the Old Testament (Josh. xx. 7, xxi. 32, LXX.; I Kings ix. 11; II...
GALLOWS – A framework consisting of one or more upright posts supporting a cross-beam, and used for executing those sentenced to death by hanging. In the Hebrew Bible (="tree") is the word. used for "gallows" (Gen. xl. 19; Deut. xxi. 22;...
GATE – This denotes not so much a contrivance like a door ( ) for barring ingress and egress, as the passageway and the group of buildings designed for ornament or defense (I Macc. xiii. 33), together with the open space adjoining to...
GATH – One of the five principal cities of the Philistines (Josh. xiii. 3; I Sam. vi. 17). The name occurs in the El-Amarna tablets as "Gimta," "Gimti," "Ginti"; in the Egyptian inscriptions as "Kutu." Goliath came from this city (I...
GAULONITIS – Section of country east of the Jordan and of the Sea of Galilee; so called particularly in the first century C.E. It is frequently mentioned by Josephus as a part of the tetrarchy of Philip, in the same general region as...
GAZARA – Fortified city in Palestine; situated on the borders of Azotus, not far from Emmaus-Nicopolis on the west. Gazara has been proved by Schürer ("Geschichte," i. 245) to be identical with the "Gezer" of the Bible (Josh. xvi. 10).E....
GEBA – A city of Benjamin, among the group of towns lying along the northern boundary (Josh. xviii. 24). Geba and its suburbs were allotted to the priests (ib. xxi. 17; I Chron. vi., 60). It is mentioned in II Kings xxiii. 8 as the...
GEBAL – A later designation for the northern part of the Edomite mountain, called "Gebalene" by the Greeks; it occurs in Ps. lxxxiii. 8 (A. V. 7), and, according to Winckler, also in Obad. v. 6. The Arabic word "Jibal," from which the...
GEBER – 1. Son of Geber; mentioned (I Kings iv. 13) as one of Solomon's district commissariat officers who resided in the fortress of Ramoth-gilead and had charge of Havoth-jair and the district of Argob.2. Son of Uri; district...
GEDALLAH – Son of Ahikam, through whose influence Jeremiah was saved from the fury of the mob, and grandson of Shaphan the scribe (Jer. xxvi. 24; II Kings xxii.; II Chron. xxxiv.); probably cousin of Michaiah, son of Gemariah (Jer. xxxvi....
GEDOR – 1. Son of Jehiel, father of Gibeon and ancestor of Saul (I Chron. viii. 31, ix. 37).2. Son of Penuel (I Chron. iv. 4).3. Son of Jered (ib. iv. 18).4. City of Judah (Josh. xv. 58), not far from Hebron. It is now called "Jadur."5....
GE-ḤARASHIM – 1. Town—the name of which means "the valley of craftsmen"—founded by Joab, one of the tribe of Judah (I Chron. iv. 14).2. Town inhabited by Benjamites (Neh. xi. 35). In this passage Ge-Ḥarashim is mentioned with Lod and Ono,...
GEHAZI – Elisha's servant (II Kings iv. 12 et seq.; v. 20, 21, 25; viii. 4-5).—Biblical Data: Gehazi is mentioned first in connection with the history of the woman from Shunem. He explains to the prophet her desire to have a son (ib. iv....
GE-HINNOM – Name of the valley to the south and south-west of Jerusalem (Josh. xv. 8, xviii. 16; Neh. xi. 30; II Kings xxiii. 10; II Chron. xxxiii. 6; Jer. vii. 31 et seq., xix. 2, xxxii. 35). Its modern name is "Wadi al-Rababah." The...
GEIGER, ABRAHAM – German rabbi and scholar; born at Frankfort-on-the-Main May 24, 1810; died at Berlin Oct. 23, 1874; son of Rabbi Michael Lazarus Geiger (born 1755; died April, 1823) and Roeschen Wallau (born 1768; died Aug., 1856.) Geiger was...
GEMARIAH – 1. Son of Shaphan the scribe. It was in Gemariah's chamber that Baruch read to the people the prophecy of Jeremiah (Jer. xxxvi. 10-12). Gemariah was one of the princes who entreated King Jehoiakim not to destroy the roll taken...
GEMS – Precious stones, usually cut or polished for ornamental or other uses. Gems were not indigenous to Palestine; they were imported, under Solomon, in ships from Ophir (I Kings x. 11; II Chron. ix. 10), or brought by wandering...
GENEALOGY – Biblical Data: A list, in the order of succession, of ancestors and their descendants. The Pentateuchal equivalent for "genealogies" is "toledot" (generations), the verb being in the "ḳal" and "hif'il" forms. The later form is...