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Emil G. Hirsch, Ph.D., LL.D.

Rabbi, Sinai Congregation; Professor of Rabbinical Literature and Philosophy, University of Chicago; Chicago, Ill.

Contributions:
GILBOA – The ancient name given to the bow-shaped mountain chain situated north of the Ras Ibziḳ, separating the plain of Jezreel from the valley of the Jordan, and sloping off abruptly toward the Jalud ravine at the northwest. The...
GILEAD – 1. District, mountain, and city east of the Jordan. The name "Gilead" in Gen. xxxi. 48 is explained by popular etymology to mean "heap of witness," in connection with the story of the heap of stones which Laban and Jacob piled...
GILGAL – The first camping-place of the Israelites in the land west of the Jordan (Josh. iv. 19); the place to which they could retreat during their struggles for conquest (Josh. x. 6 et seq.); it was also a sanctuary, the origin of...
GIMZO – A city in the Judean plain; conquered by the Philistines according to II Chron. xxviii. 18; present village of Jimzu, southeast of Lydda.Bibliography: Neubauer, Géographic du Talmud, p. 98.E. G. H. F. Bu.
GIRGASHITES – One of the nations which possessed the land of Canaan before the Israelitish conquest. In Hebrew the name occurs only in the singular and with the definite article. In Gen. x. 16 and I Chron. i. 14 "the Girgashite" is mentioned...
GIRZITES – A tribe rich in cattle and apparel; with the Geshurites and the Amalekites it occupied the land between the south of Palestine and Egypt (I Sam. xxvii. 8, 9).E. G. H.M. Sel.
GITTITH – A musical instrument mentioned in Ps. viii. 1, lxxxi. 1, lxxxiv. 1. The word is explained by Gesenius ("Thesaurus," s. v. ) as meaning "striking instrument," but it is now generally held to denote a zither. Rashi, following the...
GLEANING OF THE FIELDS – Biblical Data: The remains of a crop after harvesting, which must be left for the poor. The Mosaic law enjoins: "And when ye reap the harvest of your land, thou shalt not wholly reap the corners of thy field, neither shalt thou...
GOAT – Biblical, Data: "'Ez" is the generic name for both sexes. Special terms for the he-goat: "'attud," Gen. xxxi. 10; Ps. l. 9, etc.; "ẓafir," Ezra viii. 35; II Chron. xxix. 21; "sa'ir," Gen. xxxvii. 31; Lev. iv. 23, etc.; and...
GOD – The Supreme Being, regarded as the Creator, Author, and First Cause of the universe, the Ruler of the world and of the affairs of men, the Supreme Judge and Father, tempering justice with mercy, working out His purposes through...
GOD – The Supreme Being, regarded as the Creator, Author, and First Cause of the universe, the Ruler of the world and of the affairs of men, the Supreme Judge and Father, tempering justice with mercy, working out His purposes through...
GOD – The Supreme Being, regarded as the Creator, Author, and First Cause of the universe, the Ruler of the world and of the affairs of men, the Supreme Judge and Father, tempering justice with mercy, working out His purposes through...
GOD – The Supreme Being, regarded as the Creator, Author, and First Cause of the universe, the Ruler of the world and of the affairs of men, the Supreme Judge and Father, tempering justice with mercy, working out His purposes through...
GOD – The Supreme Being, regarded as the Creator, Author, and First Cause of the universe, the Ruler of the world and of the affairs of men, the Supreme Judge and Father, tempering justice with mercy, working out His purposes through...
GOD – The Supreme Being, regarded as the Creator, Author, and First Cause of the universe, the Ruler of the world and of the affairs of men, the Supreme Judge and Father, tempering justice with mercy, working out His purposes through...
GOD, CHILDREN OF – The "sons of God" are mentioned in Genesis, in a chapter (vi. 2) which reflects preprophetic, mythological, and polytheistic conceptions. They are represented as taking, at their fancy, wives from among the daughters of men. For...
GODLINESS – The quality of being godly, i.e., godlike, manifested in character and conduct expressive of the conscious recognition and realization of man's divine origin and destiny, and in the discharge of the duties therein involved....
GOG AND MAGOG – Biblical Data: Magog is mentioned (Gen. x. 2; I Chron. i. 5) as the second son of Japheth, between Gomer and Madai. Gomer representing the Cimmerians and Madai the Medes, Magog must be a people located east of the Cimmerians and...
GOG AND MAGOG – Biblical Data: Magog is mentioned (Gen. x. 2; I Chron. i. 5) as the second son of Japheth, between Gomer and Madai. Gomer representing the Cimmerians and Madai the Medes, Magog must be a people located east of the Cimmerians and...
GOLD – One of the precious metals. There are six Hebrew words which denote "gold," four of which occur in Job (xxviii. 15-17): (1) , the most common term, used on account of the yellow color; it is generally accompanied by epithets, as...
GOLDEN RULE, THE – By this name is designated the saying of Jesus (Matt. vii. 12): "All things therefore whatsoever ye would that men should do unto you, even so do ye also unto them." In James ii. 8 it is called "the royal law." It has been held...
GOLIATH – A Philistine giant of Gath (I Sam. xvii. 4). The name "Goliath" is probably connected with the Assyro-Babylonian "Guzali" = "running, ravaging spirits," "destroyers" (Jastrow, "Religion of Assyria and Babylon," p. 500;...
GOMER – 1. Eldest son of Japheth, and father of Ashkenaz, Riphath, and Togarmah (Gen. x. 2, 3; I Chron. i. 5, 6). In Yoma 10a and Yer. Meg. i. 9 "Gomer" is explained to be the same as which stands either for ("Cimmerii") or for...
GOPHER-WOOD – The material of which the ark of Noah was made. The word "gofer" occurs but once in the Bible, viz., in the expression (Gen. vi. 14). A comparison of the ancient versions shows that the word was just as obscure when they were...
GOSHEN – Region of Egypt which the Israelites inhabited during their sojourn in that country. It is described as situated on the eastern frontier of Lower Egypt (Gen. xlvi. 28, 29; Ex. xiii. 17; I Chron. vii. 21), forming an outpost of...